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66 Cards in this Set

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vasectomy
bilateral surgical removal of a part of the vas deferens
transurethral resection of the prostate
(TURP)
excision of parts of the prostate gland using a resectoscope through the urethra
digital rectal examination
(DRE)
finger palpation through the rectum to examine the prostate gland
circumcision
surgical procedure to remove the prepuce of the penis
castration
surgical excision of testicles or ovaries

(if a male is castrated before puberty...he becomes a eunuch)
semen analysis
ejaculated fluid is examined microscopically
PSA test
measures levels of prostate-specific antigen in the blood
syphilis
chronic STI caused by a spirochete
(spiral-shaped bacterium)
chancre
hard ulcer

(usually appears on the external genitalia a few weeks after bacterial infection such as syphilis)
herpes genitalis
infectionof the skin and mucosa of the genitals, cuased by the herpes simplex virus (HSV)
gonorrhea
inflammation of the genital tract mucous membranes, caused by infection with gonococci (berry-shaped bacteria)
chlamydial infection
bacteria (Chlamydia trachomatis) invade the urethra and reproductive tract of men and the vagina and cervix of women
phimosis
narrowing (stricture) of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis
hypospadias; hypospadia
congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis
hyperspadia
congenital opening of the male urethra on the top side of the penis
prostatic hyperplasia
benign rowth of cells within the prostate gland
(benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH)
carcinoma of the prostate
malignant tumor of the prostate gland
varicocele
enlarged, dilated veins near the testicle
(associated with oligospermia and azoospermia)
testicular torsion
twisting of the spermatic cord
hydrocele
sac of clear fluid in the scrotum
cryptorchism;
cryptorchidism
undescended testicles
carcinoma of the testes
malignant tumor of the testicles
(most common tumor, a seminoma, arises from embryonic cells in the testes)
carcinoma of the cervix
malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer)

-carcinoma in situ (CIS)...localized cancer growth
cervicitis
inflammation of the cervix
carcinoma of hte endometrium
(endometrial cancer)
malignant tumor of the uterus (adenocarcinoma)
endometriosis
endometrial tissue is found in abnormal locations, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, supporting ligaments, or small intestine
-develop as a result of bits of mentrual endometrium that pass backward through the lumen (opening) of the fallopian tube and into the peritoneal cavity
fibroids
(also called leiomymas)
benign tumors in the uterus
composed of fibrous tissue and muscle
-pedunculated growths protrude on stalks
-subserosal mass lies under the serosal layer of the uterus
-submucosal grows under the mucosal layer
-intramural masses arise within the muscular uterine wall
ovarian carcinoma
malignant tumor of the ovary (adenocarcinoma)
ovarian cysts
collections of fluid within a sac (cyst) in the ovary
dermoid cysts
lined with a variety of cell types, including skin, hair, teeth, and cartilage, and arise from immature egg cells in the ovary
also called benign cystic teratomas
pelvic inflammatory disease
(PID)
inflammation in the pelvic region; salpingitis
carcinoma of the breast
malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts)
-most common type is invasive ductal carcinoma
modified radical mastectomy
removal of the whole breast, lymph nodes and adjacent chest wall muscle
fibrocystic disease
small sacs of tissue and fluid in the breast
abruptio placentae
premature separation of the implanted placenta
choriocarcinoma
malignant tumor of the pregnant uterus
ectopic pregnancy
implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location
placenta previa
placental implantation over the cervical os (opening) or in the lower region of the uterine wall
preeclampsia
abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by the triad of high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema
Apgar score
system of scoring an infant's physical condition 1 to 5 minutes after birth
Down syndrome
chromosomal abnormality (trisomy-21) results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face with a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes
erythroblastosis fetalis
hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus
hylaine membrane disease
acute lung disease commonly seen in the premature newborn

also called respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn

caused by deficiency of surfactant, a protein necessary for proper lung function
hydrocephalus
accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain
pyloric stenosis
narrowing of the opening of hte stomach to the duodenum

(usually pertaining the a neonatal)
Pap smear (test)
microsurgery examination of stained cells from the vagina and cervix
pregnancy test
blood or urine test to detect the presence of HCG
hysterosalpingography
x-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
mammography
x-ray imaging of the breast
pelvic ultrasonography
record of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region

transvaginal ultrasound allows the radiologist a closer, sharper look at organs within the pelvis
aspiration
withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac
cauterization
process of burning a part of the body
colposcopy
visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope
conization
removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix
cryosurgery
use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue

also called cryocauterization
culdocentesis
needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac
dilation and curettage
(D&C)
widening of the cervix and scraping the endometrium of the uterus
exenteration
removal of internal organs
-pelvic exenteration is removal of the organs and adjacent structures of the pelvis
laparoscopy
visual examination of the abdominal cavity
tubal ligation
blockingthe fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occurring
abortion
spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus can exist on its own
amniocentesis
surgical puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis
cesarean section
surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus
chorionic villus sampling
sampling of placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis
fetal monitoring
use of ultrasonography to record the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions during labor
pelvimetry
measurement of the dimensions of the maternal pelvis