Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
accidental reinforcement/ adventitious reinforcement
delivery of reinforcer coincides with particular response which wasn't responsible for reinforcer present
appetitive stimulus
pleasant stimulus that positively reinforces instrumental response
augmentation/contra-blocking effect
helping conditioning of new stimulus because of a previously conditioned stimulus
aversive stimulus
bad stimulus that punishes instrumental response
avoidance
instrumental response prevents aversive stimulus
belongingness
certain respsonse belong with certain reinforcers, helps learning
blocking effect
interference of a new stimulus because of previously conditioned stimulus
comparator hypothesis
CR depends on a camparison between the associative strength of CS and of other cues that are present during training of target CS
conditioned homeostatic-response
CR similar to unconditioned homeostatic reactions elicited by some unconditioned stimuli
conditioned reinforcer/secondary reinforcer
stimulus becomes reinforcer because of association with primary unconditioned reinforcer
contiguity/ temporal contiguity
events occuring at same time (response and reinforcer)
counterconditioning
reversing previous response to a stimuli
CS-preexposure effect/ latent-inhibition effect
interfering with conditioning by exposing the CS early
differential reinforcement of other behavior
positive reinforcer's sometimes delivered to perform particular response
discrete-trial method
participant can perform instrumental response only during specified periods by placing part in chamber or by presenting the stimulus
drug tolerance
reduced effectiveness due to repeated due to use
escape
instrumental response terminates aversion stimulus
free-operant method
repeated performance of istrumental response without participant removed from chamber
high-order conditioning
cs1 used to condition new stimulus cs2
homeostasis
maintaining critical aspects of body within acceptable limits; sometimes negative feedback counteracts
instinctive drift
drift from responses for reinforcement to species typical instinctive responses related to reinforcer
instrumental behavior
activity that is effective in producing a particular consequence/reinforcere
intermin response
incresed frequency after periodic reinforcer and decreased until next reinforcer
latency
time from start of trial to instrumental response
law of effect
response + stimulus =
satisfaction: resposne strengthened
annoying: response weakened
learned-helplessness effect
interference with new learning responses from exposure to aversive stimulation
learned-helplessness hypothesis
during exposure to aversive stimulation. participants learn their behavior. can not control environment
magazine training
stimulus is repeatedly paired with reinforcer to enable part to learn and go get reinforcer then presented
marketing procedure
response followed by distinctive event that makes response more memorable and help overcome the deleting effects of delayed reinforcement
negative contrast
decreased responding for an unfavorable reinforcer after previous experiments with more desired reinforcer
negative reinforcement
you do something don't get bad, don't do something, get bad things, negative contigency
omission training
response prevents reinforcemnet stimulus
operant response
response defined by effect on environment
positive contrast
greater responding for a favorable reinforcer following previous experience with a less desired reinfrocer than in the absence of such prior experience
positive reinforcement
+ contigency do this, get pos. dont do it, dont get it
punishment
response aversive stimulus + contingency do somehting get bad, dont do dont get bad
relative waiting time hypothesis
CR depends on waiting for US w/ CS or waiting for US regardless of CS
response-reinforcer contingency
probability of reinforcement for response and reinforcement without response
running speed
speed of animal in runway
s-r learning
learning between stimulus and response; stimulus brings response
s-s learning
one stimulus represents the other
sensory preconditioning
1 weak CS2 + 1 weak CS1 = CS1 + US = CS2-> CR; regardless of being paired with US
shaping
a lot of reinforcement for response
simultaneous behavioral contrast
shifts between favorable and unfavorable reward condition w/ distinct stimulus
stimulus salience
significance/noticeablity; more salience= more rapid conditioning
stimulus substitution
interchange between US and CS
superstitious behavior
increases in frequency because of accidental pairing of the delivery of a reinfrocer with occurrences of the behavior
terminal response
response that is at end of the interval between successive reinforcements that are presented at fixed intervals
US-preexposure effect
interference with conditioning produced by repeated exposures to the unconditioned stimulus before the conditioning trials
US devaluation
reduction in the attractiveness of a US achieved by yaversion of satiation