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31 Cards in this Set

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What do organic compunds mostly contain?
Mostly Carbon and Hydrogen (some also contain Oxygen and Nitrogen)
What compound does this describe?

- covalent bondind
- are nonpolar
- have low melting and boiling points
- high flammability
Organic Compounds
What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon?
In saturated hydrocarbons, the carbon atoms are connected by single bonds only.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain one or more double (C═C) or triple bond (C≡C) between two carbon atoms.
What functional group does CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 belong in?
Alkane Group
What is
R-C-R
and suffix?
Alkane; -ane
What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n+2
n = number of carbon atoms
What is the simplest cycloalkane and how carbons and hydrogen atoms does it possess?
The simplest cycloalkane (cyclopropane, C3H6) has a ring of 3 C atoms bonded to 6 H atoms.
What are the names for the substiuents: ─NO2 ─NH2 ?
nitro; amino
What is a major difference between alkanes with 1-4 carbon atoms and alkanes with 5-8 carbon atoms?
The first four are gases at room temp. The alkanes with 5-8 carbon atoms are liquids at room temp.
What is the range of the densities for alkanes?
0.65 g/ml → 0.70 g/ml,
Why do hydrocarbons tend to have low melting and boiling points?
They are nonpolar and do not form hydrogen bonding. They are not soluble in water.
When an alkane undergoes combustion, what are its products?

Alkane + O2 →
CO2 + H2O + energy
What is
R-C=C-R
and what is its suffix?
Alkene; -ene
What is
R-C≡C-R
and what is its suffix?
Alkyne; -yne
What is
R-C-OH
||
O
and its suffix?
alcohol, -ol
What is
O
||
R-C-H
and its suffix?
Aldehyde, -dehyde
What is
O
||
R-C-R
and its suffix?
Ketone, -one
What is
R-O-R

and its suffix?
Ether, ___ ether
What is
R-SH
and its suffix?
Thiol, -thiol
When a thiol is oxidated with a mild oxidizing agent (H2O2), what products are formed?
Disulfide bond, R-S-S-R
What is
O
||
R-C-NH2
and its suffix?
Amine, -ine
What is
C-NH2
and its suffix?
Amide, -ide
What happens when an alkene is hydrated?
It loses its double bond. Then, H and OH are distributed to the two carbons involved in the former double bond and it becomes an alcohol.
What happens when an alcohol is dehydrated with a strong acid & heat?
It reverses back into an alkene and forms water.
What are tertiary alcohols exempt from?
They are exempt from hydrogen bonding.
What are two types of isomers and their differences?
Structural/constituional isomers have different connectivity. Stereoisomers/diastereoisomers/enantiomers have same connectivity but different orientation.
What is
R-C-OH
||
O
and its suffix?
Carboxylic Acid, -ioc acid
What are the four most important carboxyl acids?
Methanioc, Ethanioc, Propanoic, and Butanoic Acid
Where can naturally occuring Methanioc, Ethanioc, and Butanoic Acid be found?
In insect bites, the oxidation product of wines and apple cider, and rancid butter respectively.
What can Amines, primary, and secondary Amides do that tertiary amides can't?
Hydrogen Bonding
When an amine reacts with HCL, what is formed?
An Amine salt