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85 Cards in this Set

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Dalton
(1766-1844)Hypothesized that for every chemical element there is a corresponding species of objects called atoms. this atom cannot be broken down any more.
Molecule
Any cluster of atoms that can be isolated
electrolysis
"splitting by electricity" allowed for rapid discovery of many elements.
earth's composition
99% made of six elements: oxygen, silicon, magnesium, iron, aluminum, and calcium
Rutherford's model of the atom
a dense positively charged nucleus surrounded by oribiting cloud of negatively charged electrons
other discoveries
for each proton in nucleus there is an electron in orb it thus electrical charges of an atom cancel out and the intact atom is neutral;
if an atom should gain or lose an electron this affects its overall charge; charged atoms are called ions.
ground state of atoms
all electrons in lower energy level.
excited state of atoms
some or all electrons are in the highest energy levels
photon
in bohr model when an electron drops an energy level it emits energy(visible light)
quantam leap
an electron must disappear and reappear on another level without transversing the distance and with no time distance
stars
made mainly of two elements: hydrogen and helium
living organisms
90% hydrogen carbon nitrogen oxygen phosphorus sulfur
Thompson
identified a subatomic particle called the electron, negatively charged
Rutherford
experimented with gold foil, proved existence of the nucleus
electromagnetic radiation
electrons don't fall into the nucleus
Bohr
said that electrons exist in various levels or shells located about the nucleus each shell corresponds to an energy level of the electron
spectrum
total collection of photons omitted by a given atom therefore each has a unique spectrum.
emmission and absorption
each element will emit and absorb light of the same wavelenght transparent or feflecting materials absorb specific wavelengths of light according to their atomic structure.
spectroscopy
study of elemental composition of materials by looking at absorption lines
helium
the elusive element, first found in suns light but not found on earth until 30 years later.
laser
light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
periodic table of elements
elements arranged by their chemical properties.
atomic number
defines the sequence of elements in the table; number of protons in nucleus
alkali metals
first column- for example K,-Na)
alkali earth metals
second column (Mg, Ca)
noble gases
elements of the 8th column that do not form compounds readily
atomic interaction
explained by periodic table and bohr; when two atoms interact their outermost shell electrons dictate their interatctions and thus govern their bonding properties.
metals
most of the table is metals, conducts electricity well
pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons can occupy the same energy state(level and position in that level) at the same time.
structure of electron shells
there are naturally occurring spaces in the electron shells that can be filled by electrons as determined by spacing and electron spin
shells
1st-2 spaces
2nd shell-8 spaces
3rd shell-8 spaces
4th- 18 spaces
5th-18 spaces
6th-32 spaces
7th(highest)-32
rows
1-2 spaces
2-8 spaces
3-8 spaces
4-18 spaces
5-18 spaces
6-32 spaces
7-32 spaces
atomic mass
(atomic mass)=mp+mn
mass of atom is found by adding mass of each proton and each neutron present in the nucleus.
electrons in outer shell
valence electrons
chemical bonding
commonly involves exchange or sharing of valence electrons
valence-
number of elctrons in the outer shell; also the combining power of atoms
inert gases
(noble gas) most stable arrangement of lowest energy because all shells are filled with electrons.
quest of the atom
to achieve the lowest energy state it can; so when atoms come near each other they may exchange or share electrons to achieve this state.
chemical bond
the result of redistribution of electrons that leads to a more stable configuration between two or more atoms
strategies of atoms
give up electrons
gain electrons
share electrons
result of bonding
spontaneous- a release of energy
due to outside energy-may release or absorb energy
Atoms that are close to noble
1 less- H, F, Cl
1 more- Li, Na, K, Rb
tend to form ionic bonds
mettalic bonds
bonds between metals; atoms float in a sea of electrons, many highly compressed gases can act as metal(O),
alloy
two or more metallic elements combined in a metalic bond.
malleability
a property of metals that allows atoms to rearrange themselves within the metallic bond to order to attain a new configuration in response to stresses; metals can be bent, shaped, molded due to this property.
covalent bonds
molecules that share electrons
single bond
one electron from each atom is shared
the carbon bond
the basic bond of all essential of molecules of life on earth. C atom config means it is equally likely to gain or lose 4 electrons
the carbon-carbon system
lower energy results from sharing of outer electrons with up to 4 other C atoms.
organic chem
study of C bonding and related bonding
long chains of C and other atoms
proteins, DNA, fats, cholesterol, etc.
polar molecules
molecules with either a positive or a negative side to them
polarization
electrons of neighbor atoms or molecules tend to be pushed away from a positive side of water; polarization makes substances like water act as a solvent(materials more easily disolves
hydrogen bonds
weak electrical attraction developed by the H atom itself after it is bonded to another element, like O or N
Source of the force
all charged parts of an atom exert electrical forces on all other neighbor atoms, so even if all atoms in a substance are electrically neutral and or non polar, the sum of the electrical charges within all atoms.
gases
collections of atoms or molecules that expands to take shape of and fill the volume available in a container
atomic movement
random bouncing off one another
plasmas
seas of electrically charged particles, properties can be confined by a magnetic field; conducts electricity; can grade into a gaseous state.
liquids
collections of atoms or molecules that have no fixed shape but maintain volume.
water
most common liquid on earth, but rare on other planets as far as we know.
solids
all materials that possess a more or less fixed ahpe and volume
crystals
groups of atoms that occur in a regularly repeating sequence farming a structure in which atoms or molecules occur in a regular and predictable way.
unit cell
the smallest subdivision of a crystal that shows the complete repeating pattern of atoms within the crystal.
crystalline solids
composed of interlocking crystals
natural: rocks(such as granite)
man-made- alloys and ceramics
organic: teeth, bones
glass
groups of atoms that are may be regular on a local scale, but are not regularly distributed throughout the solid.
polymers
long and large molecules that are formed from numerous smaller molecules; regular pattern of atoms in one direction
plastics
made of intertwined polymers derived from petroleum
liquid crystals
an odd intermediate state of matter that is half way between liquid and crystalline solid- man made
changes of state in matter
freezing and melting- changes between liquid and solid
boiling and condensation
changes between liquid and gas
sublimation
change from solid to gas
driving force: temp
transitions result from temp changes
chemical reactions
atoms and molecules coming together to form larger structure or larger structures breaking apart
reactants goes to products
exothermic
reactions that give off energy wile it occurs. when atoms or molecules combine the total energy is less, heat or light is given off
endothermic
reactions that take in energy while it occurs; when atoms or molecules combine the total energy is more so energy is absorbed
oxidation
giving up e- to oxygen
combustion
rapid oxidation reaction
reduction
chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred to an atom from other elements
smelting
reducting iron by heating in the presence of CO to make
F +CO2
precipitation
solids forming as a liquid evaporates or due to saturation in the liquid by a dissolved compound
solution
dissolving of solids into a liquid to dispered ions in a solution
acid
any material that when put in water produces positivly charged H ions in the solution
base
any material that when put in water produces negatively charged OH- ions
acid-based reaction
when two are brought together, water is formed
acid and base with pH
below 7 on ph scale base is above 7