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54 Cards in this Set

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solar system
consist of major planets, satelites of the planets, and other gravity bound objects bound to the sun(asteroids and interplanetary dust)
planetary orbits
all planets orbit in same direction
all orbits of planets and satellites are in the same place
almost all rotate on their own axis in the same direction.
distribution of mass in the solar system
virtually all material of the solar system is contained within the sun
two types of planets
inner rocky or terrestial planets, or gaseous or Jovian planets
planetary sattelites
mercury and venus-0
earh- 1
mars- 2
jupiter- 30
saturn- 35
uranus- 15
neptune- 8
nebular hypothesis
local version of the laplace nebular hypothesis of star formation
nebulae
clouds of dust and gas, which can form stars and their solar systems
sequence of events
gravity causes gradual contraction of nebular until near end when contraction speeds up and central star mass is formed
collapse causes spinning to occur and cloud rotates in one direction
flattened disk develops due to spinning so that whole mass is shaped like a disk with a lump in the center
planetsesimals collide with one another and begin the process
star enters t-tauri phase when H begins burning inside due to pressures at core; this causes heating and onset of solar wind
inner planets
planets made up of rocky bodies that are more dense and made of materials with higher melting temps
outer planets
gaseous bodies that are more similar to the nebular cloud in terms of composition(H and He) and are made of materials with low melting temps
stages of formation of inner planets
1. hadean event- early melting of the crust due to heating upon contraction of the earlier planet.
2. heavy bombardment- continued accretion of planestesimals in the form of meteors, asteroids, and small planets
3. post-heavy bombardment- develpment of a stable crust upon which oceans and ice sheets may for after an atmosphere develops around the planet
Differentiation of planets(earth)
heavy materials such as Fe and Ni sink towards the core
ligheter materials move to the crust(O, Si, Al, Ca)
iron cotastrophe
a viloent sinking event thought to have occurred on Earth when large quantities of Fe and Ni suddenly sank to the core about 4 billion years ago
Core
a body about 6,800 km across made mainly of Fe and Ni; temps= 5,000 celcius, solid in the interior part and liquid on the outer part
mostly metallic bonds
mantle
the bulk of the earths mass; a thick layer around the core consisting of minterals rich in O, Si, Mg, and Fe, much denser than crust; mostly ionic bonds
asthenosphere
a thin layer of rock under low enough pressure and high enough temperature to behave as a ductile material; ductile nature allows crustal plates to move upon it
crust
a thin layer or shell on the outer part of the Earth; lighter elements are concentrated here
big splash theory
while the earth was in the hadean stage a small planet struck it and was broken into smaller pieces. this orbiting material coalesced into the moon
moons unusual comp
there is no water in any lunar minerals and the minerals are more like Earths mantle than any other planet or satellite
size of moon
moon is very large, larger than mercury or pluto so it could have been formed as a former planet
moon has no core
the density of the moon is far to low for its size which means it does not have much of an iron core
impact basins
the large impact basins on the moon are only on one side. this is probably due to the orbital accretion of the moon in earths orbit.(basins only on earths side)
evidence of impact events on terrestrial planets
impact craters, rotation direction and axial tilt
impact craters
mercury venus mars and moon all have large impact craters, because there is no atemosphere they are not erroeded like earths. Also earth has a recycling crust
rotation direction and axial tilt
venus's rotation is opposite of all other planets thought to be from an impact. Earth's tilt is 23.5 tilt towards normal
evolution of inner planetary atmospheres
early hadean atmosphere
no atmosphere phase
outgassing phase
gravitational escape phase
oxygen pollution phase
early hadean atmosphere
any gas that accumulated about an inner planet due to gravitational attraction during accretion was blown away during the t-tauri phase of the sun
no atmosphere phase
follows the t-tauri phase of the sun
outgassing phase
volcanoes and fissures bring molten material and gasses to the surface from within the planet; main gasses thus entering the new atmosphere, this is still continuing today
gravitational escape phase
planets with gravitational attraction that is low and thus allow excited atoms of the upper atmoshpwere to escape into space
oxygen pollutions stage
on earth, evolution of photsynthetic organisms that produce O as was gas caused a change in the atmoshpere. O build up began.
Mars planetary history
mars formed similar to Earth except there were no moon forming impact on mars. mars developed an atmoshpere due to outgassing like on earth. lost its atemosphere due to gravitational escape)
Why is mars red?
Fe in siicate minerals was chemically oxidized during Mars "wet period"( when planet had rain, rivers, lakes, and oceans)
internal structure of jovian planets
solid core of rock at 40,000 celcius and under very high pressure
lower mantle
metallic H at 11,000 celcius. upper mantle of liquid covalent H under high pressure
atmospheric structure
global cloud bands that rapidly move along parallel lines of latitude
giant cloud spots or storms that persist between cloud bands for centuries; formed by shear between cloud bands moving at different speeds.
Galilean moons
Io- inner moon, most volcanically active planetary body in the solar system
Europa- 2nd moon, ice world with huge fissure cracks in the icy crust; may have a liquid ocean below the icre crust, most probable home of life outside earth in solar system
ganymede- the third moon from jupiter, and ice world with a possible ocean below the ice
callisto- the outer large moon of jupiter, an ice world that is the most heavily cratered body in the solar system.
other jovian moons
there are about thirty satellites of jupiter most of them captured asteroids or comets.
saturn moons
there are about 35 satellites of saturn
titan- a moon so large it is the size of mercury; a cloud shrouded, methane ice world with methane lakes and rivers. surface is covered with several meters of organic matter produced in the atemosphere.
saturns rings
bands of finely divided ice and rock that circle saturn in an equatorial band; debris in the rins range from 1mm to 10m long. rings are likely shattered satellites and are maintained in place by the gravity of smalle shepard moons.
other jovian rings
all jovian rings: all 4 jovian planets have ring systems but only saturns are visible from earth.
pluto
only planetary body of size in the solar system not visited at least once by a space craft from Earth
one sattelite that is almost the same size
asteroids
small rocky minor planets that orbit the sun; most occur in the belt between mars and jupiter in a region of the solar system where a planet did not form. Asteroids can collide and be pushed out into other orbits.
dinosaur
many think the dinosaurs probably were killed by an asteroid destroying them from an impact
comets
small rock bodies coated by ices which mainly dwell outside the solar system in the kuipler belt and oort cloud.
long period comets
come from the kuiper belt of oort cloud on orbits of 1000s of years in duration; most make one orbit of the sun and if they survive solar passage then never return.
short period comets
originally came from the kuiper belt or oort could but their orbits were changed by jupiter so that they are now in orbits of a few 10s to 100s years; they return periodically
meteroids
small fragments that orbit the sun
meteors
a meteroid that enters earth's atmosphere and burns up due to the heat caused bby entry. this causes a bright flash of light in the nigh sky.
meteorites
any piece of space debris that passes through earths atmosphere and impacts or lands on the surface
iron
made of interlocking nickel iron crystals
stony iron
made of interlocking nickel iron crystals embeded silicon
stony
made of silicone minerals
carbonaceous chondrites
contain silicate minterals with a large amount of organic carbon and peculiar round objects called chondrules and amino acids