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### 82 Cards in this Set

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 Science A way of asking and answering questions about the physical unbiverse Observations Observances of nature without manipulating it Experiments Manipulating some aspect of nature Greek View of Science senses cannot be trusted. Observations are very difficult Medieval view of science Observation cannot contradict received wisdom. Renaissance View of Science Makign observations and experiments is the best way to learn Mendeleev Creator of the Periodic Table William Harvey Discovered that blood circulates through the body Ptolemy "Earth is the unmoved center of the universe" Everything revolves around it in SPHERES Copernicus Sun was the center of the universe Tycho Brache All planets revolve around the sun in ELLIPSES Mechanics Deals with the motion of material objects Speed Distance traveled/time Velocity speed AND direction Acceleration Speeding up, slowing down, or changing directions Newtons First Law An object in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. Uniform motion Movement in a straight line at a constant speed Force Something that produces a change in the state of motion Inertia The tendency of an object to remain in uniform motion Newton's Second Law F = m x a Mass the amount of material in an object Newtons Third Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reactoin Linear momentum Momentum = m x v Newtons law of universal gravitation Between two objects there is always a gravitational attraction Work Done whenever a force is exerted over a distance. W = F x d Joule Measure work. 1 Newton meter Energy the ability to do work Power Work (joules) / time (seconds) Kinetic Energy Energy of motion E = 1/2 mv^2 Potential Energy energy waiting to be released. E = mgh First trophic level plants that produce energy from photosynthesis Second trophic level herbivores. Plant eaters Third trophic level carnivores. Meat eaters Fourth trophic level carnivores that eat carnivores Omnivores Eat both plants and animals First law of thermodynamics The total amount of energy, including heat, is always conserved. Weight the force of gravity on an object Open System can exchange matter and energy with its surroundings Closed system cannot exchange matter and energy with its surroundings Thermodynamics study of the transfer of heat, work, and energy Heat Form of energy that flows from warmer to cooler Directionality over time There is a tendency of systems to go from order to disorder over time. Conduction heat transfer due to action of individual molecules within an object or between objects Convection a continuous cycling process within materials to which heat is being added. Entropy measure of disorder in a system. Number of possible ways that a certain arrangement of atoms can be obtained. Static electricity An electric charge that remains stationary on an object once it has been placed there. Electricity A force that moves objects toward or away from one another. Franklin Discovered electrons Coloumb's Law F = k x (q1 x q2 / d^2) q = charge Coulomb 6.3 x 10^18 Gilbert Every magnet has at least two poles. Like poles repel each other Magnetic field lines Line of force that connects the two poles of a magnet Galvani discovered that electrical charges stimulated nerves and muscles in frog's legs Volta developed the chemical battery. Studied electrical current flow. electric current Flow of charged particles electric circut unbroken path of material that carries electricity through an electrical conductor. Wired in Series Devices linked along a single loop of wire Wired in parallel different loops of wire supply different devices Oersted discovered that magnetic fields can be created by motions of electrical charges Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction Electric generator Main source of power in the U.S. Alternating Current Flow of current alternates directions many times per second Direct Current Flow of electrons in one direction only Longitudinal Waves Particles move back and forth in the direction of the wave Transverse Waves Particles that move perpendicular to the direction of the waves short wavelength= _____ sound high-pitched long wavelength= ____ sound low pitched high frequency=? sound high pitched Low frequency = ? sound low pitched high amplitude = ? sound loud low amplitude = ? sound soft Constructive interference two waves combine to reinforce one another , doubling the amplitude Destructive interference two waves combine to weaken or cancel each other out Electromagnetic Waves electrical and magnetic fields oriented at right angles to one another. Not dependent upon a medium. Transmission Wave passes through transparent material Absorption assimilation of the wave and its energy. Scattering absorption and rapid re-emission in many new directions AM Have long wavelengths. 530-1630 kHz FM Have short wavelengths. 88-110 mHz Television Uses AM waves to convey picture and FM waves to convey sound. Radar Uses tendency of metals to reflect microwaves Cooking Uses tendency of water to absorb microwaves