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82 Cards in this Set

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Science
A way of asking and answering questions about the physical unbiverse
Observations
Observances of nature without manipulating it
Experiments
Manipulating some aspect of nature
Greek View of Science
senses cannot be trusted. Observations are very difficult
Medieval view of science
Observation cannot contradict received wisdom.
Renaissance View of Science
Makign observations and experiments is the best way to learn
Mendeleev
Creator of the Periodic Table
William Harvey
Discovered that blood circulates through the body
Ptolemy
"Earth is the unmoved center of the universe" Everything revolves around it in SPHERES
Copernicus
Sun was the center of the universe
Tycho Brache
All planets revolve around the sun in ELLIPSES
Mechanics
Deals with the motion of material objects
Speed
Distance traveled/time
Velocity
speed AND direction
Acceleration
Speeding up, slowing down, or changing directions
Newtons First Law
An object in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
Uniform motion
Movement in a straight line at a constant speed
Force
Something that produces a change in the state of motion
Inertia
The tendency of an object to remain in uniform motion
Newton's Second Law
F = m x a
Mass
the amount of material in an object
Newtons Third Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reactoin
Linear momentum
Momentum = m x v
Newtons law of universal gravitation
Between two objects there is always a gravitational attraction
Work
Done whenever a force is exerted over a distance. W = F x d
Joule
Measure work. 1 Newton meter
Energy
the ability to do work
Power
Work (joules) / time (seconds)
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion E = 1/2 mv^2
Potential Energy
energy waiting to be released. E = mgh
First trophic level
plants that produce energy from photosynthesis
Second trophic level
herbivores. Plant eaters
Third trophic level
carnivores. Meat eaters
Fourth trophic level
carnivores that eat carnivores
Omnivores
Eat both plants and animals
First law of thermodynamics
The total amount of energy, including heat, is always conserved.
Weight
the force of gravity on an object
Open System
can exchange matter and energy with its surroundings
Closed system
cannot exchange matter and energy with its surroundings
Thermodynamics
study of the transfer of heat, work, and energy
Heat
Form of energy that flows from warmer to cooler
Directionality over time
There is a tendency of systems to go from order to disorder over time.
Conduction
heat transfer due to action of individual molecules within an object or between objects
Convection
a continuous cycling process within materials to which heat is being added.
Entropy
measure of disorder in a system. Number of possible ways that a certain arrangement of atoms can be obtained.
Static electricity
An electric charge that remains stationary on an object once it has been placed there.
Electricity
A force that moves objects toward or away from one another.
Franklin
Discovered electrons
Coloumb's Law
F = k x (q1 x q2 / d^2)
q = charge
Coulomb
6.3 x 10^18
Gilbert
Every magnet has at least two poles. Like poles repel each other
Magnetic field lines
Line of force that connects the two poles of a magnet
Galvani
discovered that electrical charges stimulated nerves and muscles in frog's legs
Volta
developed the chemical battery. Studied electrical current flow.
electric current
Flow of charged particles
electric circut
unbroken path of material that carries electricity through an electrical conductor.
Wired in Series
Devices linked along a single loop of wire
Wired in parallel
different loops of wire supply different devices
Oersted
discovered that magnetic fields can be created by motions of electrical charges
Faraday
discovered electromagnetic induction
Electric generator
Main source of power in the U.S.
Alternating Current
Flow of current alternates directions many times per second
Direct Current
Flow of electrons in one direction only
Longitudinal Waves
Particles move back and forth in the direction of the wave
Transverse Waves
Particles that move perpendicular to the direction of the waves
short wavelength= _____ sound
high-pitched
long wavelength= ____ sound
low pitched
high frequency=? sound
high pitched
Low frequency = ? sound
low pitched
high amplitude = ? sound
loud
low amplitude = ? sound
soft
Constructive interference
two waves combine to reinforce one another , doubling the amplitude
Destructive interference
two waves combine to weaken or cancel each other out
Electromagnetic Waves
electrical and magnetic fields oriented at right angles to one another. Not dependent upon a medium.
Transmission
Wave passes through transparent material
Absorption
assimilation of the wave and its energy.
Scattering
absorption and rapid re-emission in many new directions
AM
Have long wavelengths. 530-1630 kHz
FM
Have short wavelengths. 88-110 mHz
Television
Uses AM waves to convey picture and FM waves to convey sound.
Radar
Uses tendency of metals to reflect microwaves
Cooking
Uses tendency of water to absorb microwaves