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12 Cards in this Set

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Mitosis
Nuclear division mechanism that maintains the parental chromosome number for forthcoming daughter cells. Basis of growth, tissue repair, and often asexual reproduction of eukaryotes.
Meiosis
Only nuclear division process that halves the chromosome number of a parental cell, to the haploid number. Forms gametes in animals and spores in plants.
Chromosome
A coherent structure consisting of a DNA molecule and associated proteins.
Chromatid
Two identical DNA molecules (and associated proteins) attached at the centromere until they are separated from each other at mitosis or meiosis; each is then a separate chromosome.
Centromere
Constricted part of a chromosome to which spindle microtubules attach.
Interphase
Cell cycle interval between nuclear divisions; a cell grows in mass and roughly doubles the number of cytoplasmic components. DNA replication occurs during the interphase that precedes mitosis.
Prophase
Of mitosis, a stage when duplicated chromosomes start to condense, a spindle forms, and the nuclear envelope starts to break up. Duplicated pairs of centrioles move to opposite spindle poles. In prophase I of meiosis, crossing over also occurs.
Metaphase
Of meiosis I, stage when all pairs of homologous chromosomes have become positioned at the spindle equator. Of mitosis or meiosis II, all duplicated chromosomes are positioned at the spindle equator.
Anaphase
Of mitosis, stage when sister chromatids of each chromosome move to opposite spindle poles. During anaphase I (meiosis), each duplicated chromosome and its homologue move to opposite poles. During anaphase II, sister chromatids of each chromosome move to opposite poles.
Telophase
Of meiosis I, a stage when one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes reaches a spindle pole. Of mitosis and of meiosis II, the stage when chromosomes decondense into threadlike structures and daughter nuclei form.
Diploid
Total chromosome number in cells that have a pair of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species.
Haploid
Total chromosome number in cells that have one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species.