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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Speech skills are necessary for all social beings
Social imperative
More sophistaced receiver of public talk must engage in reflective complaining and reflective compliments
consumer imperative
speech training the study of human speech
Intellectual imperative
direct, in-person, spoken connections between people
the mechanism by which our perceptions of the world are formed to fit with our existing values, knowledge, and experience
credibility, reputation
motives and aims no matter how pure or how grandiose
shate characteristics w/ others
good sense, goodwill, and good morals
to act in accordance w/ community beliefs and values
moral frames
you must find some moral frame you share w/ your lsteners if you're going to convince them that you have their best interests at heart.
skyhook principle
5 qualities that merit your attention
integrity, knowledge, rhetorical sensitivity, oral skills, self confidence
refers to speakers' attitudes toward the process of speech composition. More particulary it is the degree to which speakers recognize that all people are different and complex and must be considered individually.
Rhetorical sensitivity
allows you to think your way strategically through the decisions you have to make as you prepare for any speech
rhetorical frame of mind
steps in making a speech
1 select the subject
2 narrowing the subject
3 determing the purpose
4 analyzing the audience/occasion
5 gathering speech materials
6 outlining the speech
7 practicing aloud
four general purposes to speaking
to inform
to persuade
to actuate
to entertain
to help listeneres understand an idea, concept, or process or to widen their range of knowledge.
speech to inform
to influence listeners to adopt a new point of view or to take a course of action
speech to persuade or actuate
not just a comic monologue. humor is purposeful. humouous yet serious
speech to entertain
seeking to explain an idea or inform an audience about a process or event
central idea
expresses the intent of your argument
now the audience's knowledge of and attitude toward the topic b/c it is a primary determinant of success
audience analysis
delivered on the spur of the moment w/ little preperation
impromptu speech
written out, word for word, and commited to memory
doesnt sound conversational
Memorized speech
written out, and read from a manuscript
Read speech
middle course between the memorized or read speech and impromptu speech
requires careful planning and a good outline
We use this speech
Extemporaneous Speech
5 Forms of supporting materials
1 comparison/contrast
2 testimony
3 statistics
4 example/narrative
5 explanation
a description or expositoy passage that makes a term, concept, process, or proposal clear and acceptable
tells what, how, or why and shows relatiohnships between a whole and its parts
an analogy that connects something already known or believed w/ ideas a speaker wishes to have understood or accepted.
Stresses similarities
helps to clarify a complex situation or process by focusing on differences
a detailed example of an idea you wish to support
illustration or narrative
(Ill. describes a concept/condition)
(Narr. is in story form)
if illustration is undeveloped or set up as a string of quick examples
specific instance
numbers that show relationships between or among phenomenal relationships that can emphasize size or magnitude, describe subclasses or parts, or establich trends
show aspects of a problem caused by seperate factors
statistical SEGMENTS
indicators that tell us where we were, where we are now, and where we may be heading.
great metaphor for WWW a system that allows everyone to access info. electronically from around the globe
Information Superhighway
a way of reading many assembled sources at once
computerized language, pictures, and sounds and move site to site by clicking
World Wide Web
the address of some site
an online database that allows you to explore broad subjects and find specific info by being directed to a source
search engine
the unacknowledged inclusion of someone else's words, ideas, or data as one's own.
teh most basic level which includes relationships built between ideas by use of structuring words
middle-level organization which is made up of packaging techniques that bundle ideas together in recognizable patters
a way or organizing a whole speech which includes introductory and concluding sections attached to the center of the speech
Language strategies to organize
Numerical order - In the first place
Temporal order - Before I, After you do,
Physical space - In the middle. To west
Topics/types - branches of govt
Narrative order - once upon a time
Logical inference - Because of this
Hierarchies - Higher/lower Inside/Out
temporal structureing of happenings or events
chronological pattern
begin at some perod or date and move forward systematically to provide background info.
temporal sequence
stories are the sourece of supporting material for some claim or moral-of-the-story
Narrative sequence
arranges ideas or subpoints in terms of their physical proximity or relationship to eachother
spatial pattern
organizes materials according to well-known regions or areas
geographical pattern
moves either from a description of present conditions to an analysis of the causes that seem to have produced them or an analysis of present causeses to a cnosideration of future effect
Causal pattern
useful in speeches that enumerate aspects of persons places things or processes
topical patterns
coverage of aspects as in an analysis of the whowhatwherewhenhowwhy sheme
complete enumeration
only talk about some facets
focusing on some aspects not all
partial enumeration
constucted ou of a method for imporving sales in the 1920s teh steps conform to a listener's desire for need satifacton rational decision making and order.
a holistic way of organizing speeches
Monroe's motivated sequence
capture and hold listeners' attention through the types of ideas you present
they must be compelled to listen
attention step
make the info or viewpoint vial to audience's interest. set forth reasons for their concern about the issue you're discussing
need step
helps your listeners understand the info you're presenting or to show them how they can handle the needs you've raised in them
satisfaction step
in speeches to persuade
to intensify the audiences desire or willingness to act
visualization step
favorable conditions that will prevail if the audience accepts your beliefs or proposal
positive method of visualization
describes the adverse conditions that will prevail in the future if the audience does not adopt your ideas or proposal
negative method of visualization
should be relatively brief
answer the question of waht to do w/ info you gave
action step
a focus on one element in a given enfironment w/ other elements fading from conscious perception as a rewsult
10 factors of attentoin
visualization, activity, reality, proximity, familiarity, novelty, suspense, conflict, humor, the vital
a sense of movemetn in the presentation that shows the audience you are alive
attention gaining/maintaining strategies
the here-and-now of sense data
concrete reality
a topic that is far away from the daily concerns of the audience neds to be brought home
employ in the face of new or strange ideas
gains its strength from an initial familiarity w/ the allusion; using the familiar in new and unique ways gives it added punch
structuring stories so tehy build to a surprising climax
controversy compels attention
provides a chance for listeners to participate more actively in the transacton by sharing their laughter
matter of personalizing your speech of making it unavoidable relevant not just to the group but also to specific individuals in your audience
the vital
creating word pictures
each item contain one main idea
less important ideas subordinate to more important ideas
consistent set of symbols
logical relation of items/indentation
identifies your topic, provides a reasonable number of subtopics, and shows a method for organizing and developing your speech
rough outline
a diagnostic tool used to determine whether a speech is structurally sound
technical plot outline
everything referred to in shorthand
use phrases and singel key words
speaking outline
highly useful tool in making sure both you and your audience know where you are as you present your ideas
statements about the world upon which two or more people agree
a collection of facts associated w/ some topic
information given human significance
satisfying lower-level needs before higher-level needs
hierarchy of prepotency
focus on the desire to belong to a group, to be well liked and accepted
Affiliation motives
relates both to the intrinsic and extrinsic desires for success, etc.
Achievement motives
involve activities in which influence over others is the primary objective
Power motives
an attempt to code or translate a biological ro social motive int o language
motivation appeal
claim that someone is acting on the basis of specific motives
attribution process
project a scene or setting in which people are enjoying the advantages of accepting your ideas
visualization process
a speech that assembles, arranges, and interprets info. gathered in response to a request from a particular group
oral briefing
has much in common w/ definitional speech
less concerned w/ the word or vocab involved than w/ connection one concept to a series of others
explanatory speech