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49 Cards in this Set

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Claim: To get an A in this class, you must attend every class session.

Grounds: Ashley, Evan, and Gabriel all attended every class and each got an A
Argument by Example
Claim: Banning handguns in America will result in a reduction of crime.

Grounds: Handguns are banned in Holland, the UK, and Japan, all places where the crime rate is low.
Argument by Analogy
Claim: Sharing needles can result in the spread of HIV.

Grounds: HIV is spread by the transmission of body fluids.

Warrant: Sharing needles results in (causes) the transmission of body fluids.
Argument by Cause
Claim: No one should cheat on a test (as a principle).

Grounds: One should always try to be honest.

Warrant: Cheating is principled on dishonestly.
Argument by Principle
Argument where it is based on the assumption of a substance-attribute relationship - based on the assumption that the substance has characteristics
Argument by Sign
Several specific cases in a given class are given in order to prove a point.
Argument by Example
Similarities between different cases are examined.
Argument by Analogy
Warrant illustrates a casual link between the claim and the grounds.
Argument by Cause
Argument illustrates a principle which is proven by the data.
Argument by Principle
Claim: The university is finally beginning to build a new parking lot.

Grounds: There are bulldozers on campus.

Warrant: Bulldozers are a sign that KU is beginning construction.
Argument by Sign
Appeals to the credibility of a source of information as a source of credibility.
Argument from Authority
Claim: A chemical plant should be shut down.

Grounds: Shana believes that the chemical plant should be shut down.

Warrant: Shana is an expert.
Argument from Authority
A confusion of A causing B to occur, versus B happening directly after A happens with no indication of causation.
Correlation Versus Causation
"Every day I miss the buss after I eat my cornflakes, therefore cornflakes make me miss the bus."
Correlation Versus Causation
Occurs when the argument by example is based on too few instances.
Hasty Generalization
"I saw two male penguins. Therefore, all penguins are male"
Hasty Generalization
The result of taking collectively that which should only be taken separately, believing that what is true for each individual part is true for the whole.
Fallacy of Composition
"The sides of a square are all straight lines. Therefore a square is a straight line"
Fallacy of Composition
Assumption that what is true for the whole is true for the parts.
Fallacy of Division
"The class average is a C. Therefore, Billy must be a C-student."
Fallacy of Division
Argument premised on a policy being rejected not based on its immediate bad effects but rather because of a perceived dangerous direction.
Slippery Slope
"Weapon regulation lead to totalitarianism."
Slippery Slope
This fallacy is demonstrated by extravagent or exaggerated claims.
Hyperbole
"The laundry is a 'mile high', and it is very dangerous"
Hyperbole
Asserting causation when only correlation is proven.
Post Hoc Propter Ergo Hoc
"Bush is president, and the economy has gone down since his election, therefore Bush caused the economy to go down."
Post Hoc Propter Ergo Hoc
Statement that is irrelevant to what one is trying to prove - conclusion that doesn't follow from evidence presented.
Non Sequitor
Argument that proves nothing because the claim as been assumed as true in the grounds of the warrant.
Begging the Question/ Arguing in a Circle
"God must exist because the Bible says so. God wrote the Bible."
Begging the Question/ Arguing in a Circle
Appeals solely to a person's authority to justify a claim
Ad Verecundium
"I'm not a doctor, but I play one on TV. Take Tylenol for headaches."
Ad Verecundium
Appeals solely to pity or sympathy
Ad Misericordium
"I have to receive an A in this class to receive a scholarship!"
Ad Misericordium
Attack the source of an argument rather than the argument itself, "name-calling"
Ad Hominem
"Hitler was a vegetarian."
Ad Hominem
Something is assumed to be true because it hasn't been proved false.
Ad Ignorantium
"The government won't let us see Area 51. Therefore, it exists."
Ad Ignorantium
Appeal to force or fear
Argumentum Ad Baculum
"If you have an abortion, you will burn in hell"
Argumentum Ad Baculum
Appeal to numbers
Argumentum Ad Populum
"71% of Americans support the death penalty as a crime deterrent, therefore the death penalty must be a deterrent."
Argumentum Ad Populum
Asserts that something is right because it has always been done that way
Argumentum Ad Antiquitatem
"Two-parent families are the best because it has always been two-parent families."
Argumentum Ad Antiquitatem
Attacking a weakened form of an opponent's argument or an argument the opponent didn't advance
Straw Person
A: Clean your closet, it is messy.
B: We shouldn't have to clean them every day!
Straw Person
Introduces an irrelevent issue into a controversy to divert attention from the real issue at hand.
Red Herring
"This bond issue shouldn't go to a vote - there are already so many on the ballot!"
Red Herring
Implies that there are only two choices available.
False Dilemna
"Either you can afford this stereo, or you are going to have to live without music for a while."
False Dilemna