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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
∑ A microcomputer’s processing takes place in the central processing unit (CPU), the two main parts of which are the control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
∑ Within the CPU, program instructions are retrieved and translated with the help of an internal instruction set and the accompanying microcode
∑ CPUs in the same family are made with backward compatibility in terms of instructions sets, so that the new CPU can work with all the same programs that the old CPU used
∑ The actual manipulation of data takes place in the ALU, which is connected to registers that hold data
∑ Read only memory (ROM) is nonvolatile (not permanent), programs and data can be written to and erased from RAM as needed
∑ The CPU accesses each location in memory by using a unique number called the memory address
∑ The size of the registers, also called word size, determines the amount of data with which the computer can work at a given time
∑ The amount of RAM can also effect speed because the CPU can keep more of the active program and data in memory rather than in storage
Two kinds of bus located on the motherboard
the data bus and the address bus
The width of the data bus determines
how many bits at a time can be transmitted between the CPU and other devices
The cache is...
a type of high speed memory that contains the most recent data and instructions that have been loaded by the CPU
Address bus
o A set of wires connecting the computers CPU and RAM across which memory addresses are transmitted. The number of wires determines the amount of memory that can be addressed at any one time
∑ Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
o An early network developed by the Department of Defense to connect computers at universities and defense contractors. This network eventually becomes part of the internet
∑ Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
∑ The component of the CPU that handles arithmetic and logic functions. Instructions are passed by memory to the ALU
∑ Arithmetic operation
o One of to types of operations a computer can perform which are handled by the ALU, these powers conclude +, -, /, *
o American standard code of information interchange
∑ Binary system
o A system of representing the two possible states on and off (0 and 1
∑ Bit
o The smallest unit of data
∑ Burst extended data output (BEDO)
o A very fast type of RAM which is only supported by very few computers
∑ Bus
o The path between components of a computer or nodes of a network. The width of the bus determines the speed at which the data is transmitted
∑ Cache memory
o High-speed memory that resides between the CPU and Ram. Cache memory stores data and instructions that the CPU is likely to need next
∑ Control unit
o The component of the CPU that contains the instruction set, this control unit directs the flow of data through the computer system
∑ Cyrix
o One of several manufactures that make processor that mimic the functionality of Intel’s chip
∑ Data bus
o An electrical path composed of parallel wires that
∑ Decimal system
o The system that uses 10 digits to represent numbers
∑ Dual in Line Memory Module (DIMM)
o Type of circuit board containing RAM chips
∑ EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
o An 8 bit binary code developed by IBM to represent symbols and numeric and alphanumeric characters, commonly used today on most IBM mainframe computers
∑ EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture)
A pc bus standard created by a consortium of hardware developers that extends the 16-bit bus to 32 bits. EISA buses are capable of accessing 16 bit and 32 bit devices
∑ Extended Data Output (EDO)
o A type of RAM, which is faster than FPM and RAM and commonly found on the fastest computers
∑ Fast Page Mode (FPM)
o The oldest and least sophisticated type of RAM, still used today in many PC’s
∑ Flash Memory
o A type of nonvolatile memory like ROM which stores data even when the when the systems power is turned off. Flash memory is commonly found and used in digital cameras
∑ Floating Point Arithmetic
o A method used to speed up storage and calculation of numbers by reducing the number of decimal through the use of scientific notation. It is the function of the computers math coprocessor to perform such calculations
∑ Floating point unit (FPU)
o A computer chip that can be either separate from or part of the CPU ad is especially designed to handle complex mathematical operations; also called the floating point unit because it performs floating point calculations
∑ Hertz
o The frequency of electrical vibrations per second
∑ Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus
o A PC bus standard developed by IBM, extending the bus to 16 bits. An ISA bus can access 8 bit and 16 bit devices
∑ Instruction set
o Machine language instructions that define all of the operations that the CPU can perform
∑ Intel
o The worlds leading manufacturer of microprocessors. Intel invented the first microprocessor which was used in electronic calculators
∑ Logical operation
o One of the two types of operations a computer can perform. Logical operations usually involve making a comparison, such as determining whether two values are equal
∑ Massively Parallel Processors (MPP
o A processing architecture that uses hundreds to thousands of microprocessors in one computer to perform complex processes quickly
∑ Math coprocessor
o A computer chip that can be either separate from or part of the CPU and is especially designed to handle complex mathematical operations; also called the floating point unit
∑ Media GX
o A microprocessor made by Cyrix which integrates audio and graphics functions and is available in 120 MHz and 133 MHz versions
∑ Megahertz (MHz)
o Equivalent to millions of cycles per second; a common measure of clock speed
∑ Memory address
o A number used by the CPU to locate each piece of data in the memory
∑ Microcode
o Code that details the individual tasks the computer must perform to complete each instruction in the instruction set; a necessary level of translation between programs instructions and elementary circuit operations
∑ Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) bus
o A 32 bit PC bus standard developed by IBM; allows expansion boards to be configured by the software instead of manually
o A microprocessor technology incorporated by Intel in the Pentium Pro, which increases the multimedia capabilities for a computer chip. MMX processors process audio, video, and graphical data more efficiently than the non MMX processors, enabling one instruction to perform the same function on multiple pieces of data, reducing the number of loops required to handle video, audio, animation, and graphical data
∑ Moore’s Law
o A commonly held and so far accurate axiom, which states that computing power doubles every 18 months
∑ Nonvolatile
o The tendency for memory to retain data even when the computer is turned off
∑ Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus
o A PC bus standard developed by Intel that supplies high speed data path between the CPU and peripheral devices
∑ Power PC
o A microprocessor designed to run on both DOS and Macintosh based software