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11 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What is computer architecture? (3 things)
1. instruction-set architecture (hw/sw interface)
2. high-level organization
3. detailed hardware implementation (microarchitecture)
1. opcodes
2. level
3. switches to rep. logic gates
What is the role of the computer architect?
To design the various levels of a computer system to maximize performance & programmability within the limits of technology and cost.
To design ____ to maximize ____ within the limits of _____.
What 4 things must a computer architect be aware of?
1. measures of cost & performance
2. application characteristics & benchmarks
3. importance of memory hierarchies
4. high-performance design methods
1. measure of ____
2. application ____
3. imortance of ____
4. ____ design methods
What is CMOS VLSI?
CMOS = Complimentary-Symmetry /metal-oxide semiconductor. A major class of integrated circuits. Microprocessor, Micro controller...
VLSI = Very Large-Scale Integration. Creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistor-based circuits into a single chip.
CMOS - semiconductor
VLSI - circuits
What is Moore's Law?
Complexity of integrated circuits, w/ respect to minimum component cost, doubles every 24 months.
___ doubles every ___ months
What are 2 techniques for using more transistors?
1. parallelism in processing
2. locality in data access
1. multiple operations per cycle reduces CPI
2. avoids latency, reduces CPI
What are approaches to solving the problem of larger memories being slower while processors are faster?
1. transfer more data in parallel
2. deeper cache hierarchies
1. better way to transfer data?
2. deeper ___?
What is execution time?
It is wall-clock or elapsed time.
Why is there CPU time in addition to execution time?
Because multiprogrammed operating systems run other programs which could slow down the execution time of a program.
multiprogrammed operating systems...
What two categories can CPU time be divided into?
1. user time
2. system time
What does SPEC stand for?
Standard Performance Evaluation Consortium