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72 Cards in this Set

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Exam Essential

Be able to define the initiating process

What does the initiating process start with?

What is the primary output of this process group?
Initiation authorizes the project to begin

A project request that outlines the high-level requirements (i.e. product description)

The Project Charter
Exam Essential

Understand the three categories of requirements
Functional
Define how the user will interact with the system

Business
The big picture of what the business wants from the system

Technical
Define what the system does to perform the functional requirements
What are some common technical requirements?
• Usability requirements
• Maintainability requirements
• Legal requirements
• Performance requirements
• Operational requirements
• Security requirements

Industry or corporate standards may also impact technical requirements if you are developing an application the interfaces to existing systems.
Exam Essential

Be able to define a project sponsor and the stakeholders common to most projects.
Project Sponsor
An executive in the organization who has the authority to allocate dollars and resources to the project.
Serve as final decision makers on the project and signs and approves the project charter

Stakeholder
Organization or individual who has a vested interest (something to lose or gain) in the project

Common Stakeholders
• Sponsor
• Project manager
• Project team members
• Functional managers
• Customers
• End users
• Others with an interest in the project
What are the typical responsibilities of the project sponsor?
• Provide or obtain financial resources
• Authorize assignment of human resources to the project
• Assign the project manager and state their level of authority
• Serve as final decision maker for all project issues
• Negotiate support from key stakeholders
• Monitor delivery of major milestones
• Run interference and remove roadblocks
• Provide political coaching to the project manager
What is the project charter the basis for?
The project charter becomes the basis for more detailed project planning.
Key Terms

Assumptions
Factors that are believed to be true and affect project planning. Assumptions may impact risk and should always be documented and validated.
Key Terms

Business requirements
The conditions that the product must meet to support the high-level processes and needs of the business.
Key Terms

Closing
A process that documents the final delivery and acceptance of the project and is where hand-off occurs to the operational unit.

Documenting lessons learned are performed during this process, and project team members are released.
Key Terms

Customer
The recipient of service or product that the project created. Also known as client in some organizations
Key Terms

Decomposition
Breaking the project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.
Key Terms

Deliverables
Deliverables are:
• Measureable outcomes,
• Measureable results, or
• Specific items.
That must be produced to consider the project complete.
Key Terms

End user
The person or group who will use the product produced by the project.
Key Terms

Enterprise project
A project that will be used by users throughout the enterprise
Key Terms

Executing
This project process group is where the work of the project is performed
Key Terms

Fast tracking

What is the benefit of fast-tracking?
A schedule compression technique where two activities that were previously scheduled to start sequentially start at the same time.

Fast-tracking reduces schedule duration.
Key Terms

Functional Requirements
Conditions that the product must meet to support how the end users will interact with the product.
Key Terms

High-level requirements
An explanation of the major characteristics of the product including an explanation of why the product meets the business needs.

Also known as product description.
Key Terms

Initiating Process Group

What is included in this process group
Formal authorization of a new project or for an existing project to continue.

All the activities that lead up to the final authorization to begin the project.
Key Terms

Monitoring & Controlling
The project process group where activities are performed to monitor the progress of the project and determine whether there are variances from the project plan.

Corrective actions are taken during this process to get the project back on course.
Key Terms

Planning

What is the primary result of this process?
The process group where the project goals, objectives, and deliverables are refined and broken down into manageable units of work.

Managers create time and cost estimates and determine resource requirements for each activity

The Project Plan.
Key Terms

Product description
An explanation of the major characteristics of the product including an explanation of why the product meets the business needs. Also known as high-level requirements.
Key Terms

Project champion
An individual, who believes in, understands and supports the project.

Usually one of the key stakeholders, they spread the great news about the benefits of the project and act as a cheerleader of sorts, generating enthusiasm and support.
An individual, who believes in, understands and supports the project.

Usually one of the key stakeholders, they spread the great news about the benefits of the project and act as a cheerleader of sorts, generating enthusiasm and support.
Key Terms

Project charter
A document that is created in the initiation phase that provides direction about the project’s objectives and management and authorizes the project to begin. Also known as a project initiation document.
Key Terms

Project description
Documents the key characteristics of the product or service that will be created by the project.
Key Terms

Project life cycle
The required phases to develop the product.

Encompasses all the work of the project and can be represented on a timeline.
Key Terms

Request for Proposal (RFP)
A document provided to a prospective vendor requesting a proposal for work and or products to be provided.

Also known as Invitation for Bid (IFB).
Key Terms

Sponsor
An executive in the organization who can assign resources and can make final decisions on the project.
Key Terms

Stakeholder
An individual or organization that affects or is affected by the project.
Key Terms

Statement of Work (SOW)
A document that outlines the details and requirements of the product or service being procured (from a vendor).
Key Terms

Technical Requirements
The product characteristics required for the product to perform the functional requirements.
What are the five (5) process groups of project management?
1. Initiating
2. Planning
3. Executing
4. Monitoring and Controlling
5. Closing
Key Term

Deliverable
Outcome or product that is produced to complete a work package or project

Must be completed and approved before moving to the next phase of the project or before you can declare the project complete.
At a high-level what should all project life-cycles describe?
1. The deliverables for each phase and list the categories of resources involved.
2. A high-level timeline for the phase might be constructed as well
3. How the output of the project will be incorporated into the organization’s operational business upon completion
What must is a project managers first step after receiving a project request?
Meeting with the requestor to clarify and further define:

1. The project needs
2. Identify the functional and technical requirements
3. Document the high-level requirements
How does clarifying the problem upfront help the project requestor?
It will give the client (requestor) a better starting point for identifying the functional and technical requirements.
What is the high-level requirements document?
Part of the formal request for project approval.

It is also the basis for defining:
• Project scope
• Estimating the cost of the project
• Identifying resources required
• Developing the schedule
What information should be included in the High-Level Requirement Document?
1. Problem Statement
2. Objectives
3. Strategic Value
4. Requirements
5. Timing
6. Historical Data
When completing the High-Level Requirement Document, what questions should you ask to complete the:

Problem Statement
Problem Statement
• What issue or problem generated this request?
• What is the specific business need that the client wants to address?
When completing the High-Level Requirement Document, what questions should you ask to complete the:

Objectives
Objectives
• How do you define project success?
• What is the end result?
• What are the deliverables leading to the end result?
• What are the goals?
• How are the goals measured?
When completing the High-Level Requirement Document, what questions should you ask to complete the:

Strategic Value
Strategic Value
• How does this product fir the strategic vision of the corp?
• Is there a link to other proposed or ongoing projects
When completing the High-Level Requirement Document, what questions should you ask to complete the:

Requirements
Requirements
• What work functions are required?
• Are there interfaces to existing systems?
• What are the performance criteria?
• What are the support requirements?
When completing the High-Level Requirement Document, what questions should you ask to complete the:

Timing
Timing
• When does the customer need to project completed?
• Are there market windows involved?
• Are there significant business expenses to be incurred if the project is not complete?
• Is there an impact to corporate revenue if the project is delayed?
When completing the High-Level Requirement Document, what questions should you ask to complete the:

Historical Data
Historical Data
• Have there been similar projects in the past?
• Were they successful?
• Can pieces of previous projects be reused for this project?
Define: Political Stakeholders
Influential people in the organization who have expressed a desire to be involved in the project, without a direct or obvious connection.
When should you use a stakeholder matrix?

What information should be included on a stakeholder matrix?
you have a large project with multiple stakeholders.

• Name
• Notes for your own reference
• Department
• Level of involvement on the project
• Contact Information
• Level of influence over the project
• Role on the project
• Needs, concerns, and interests regarding the project
Define: COTS
Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) application
What is the most important aspect of multiple business unit projects?
Gaining consensus
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Software Developers
Specialize in writing software or web-based programs that provide computer-related solutions to:
• business problems,
• productivity issues,
• entertainment,
• and more.
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Server Administrators
Responsible for configuring and supporting the server that will host your project
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Database Administrators (DBAs)
Responsible for creating the database schema and their associated requirements

They also plan the backup and recovery methodologies for the data
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Internetworking specialists
Handle the routers, switches, LAN cabling, and WAN connections
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Telephony specialists
Manage the company’s telephone equipment and operations
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Systems Analysts
Operate at the functional level of taking the system requirements and breaking them down into a system design specifications that the system developers can use to build the project.
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Business Analysts
Understand the workflow processes and the needs of the business unit and are able to interface with the IT folks to help them understand what the business unit really wants
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

System Architects
Draft the blueprint for infrastructure of the proposed system
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Security Analysts
Makes certain that all security requirements for the project are implemented
Describe the following IT stakeholder:

Technical Writers
Responsible for writing all of the documentation for the system, including:
• training documents
• user manuals
• help-desk cheat sheets
• job aids
• other documentation
Exam Essential

Be able to describe a project charter and list the key components

“DPs DOg CRAP SCAMS”
A project charter provides formal approval for the project to begin and authorizes the project manager to apply resources to the project.

• Project goals and objectives
• Project description
• Problem statement
• Key project deliverables
• High-level milestones
• High-level cost estimates
• Stakeholders
• High-level assumptions
• High-level constraints
• High-level risks
• General project approach
• PM and their authority level
• Project sponsor
• Other content
How should goals and objectives be outlines in the project charter?
Goals and objectives should:

• Be a clear statement of the end result the project will produce
• Include how success will be measured
• Be quantifiable and measureable
• Create a common understanding of the end result
Describe the project description as a part of the project charter.
The project description documents the key characteristics of the product, service or result that will be created by the project.

This description needs to contain enough detail to be the foundation for the Planning process group, which begins once the charter is signed.
What questions does the problem statement answer in the project charter?

Where could you refer for help with the problem statement?
• Why are we embarking on this project in the first place?
• What is it we hope to gain in undertaking this project?
• What problem are we trying to solve?

You can refer to the business case.
Define: Milestone
The completion of a significant event or major deliverable used to measure project progress.

Milestones are used as checkpoint during the project to determine whether the project is on time and on schedule.
Describe how high-level costs are used in the project charter.
For the purposes of the project charter you need to have a high-level estimate of the projects cost.

Use historical data from past projects that are similar in size, scope and complexity; you may also ask the vendor community to help with some high-level figures
Describe how stakeholders are identified in the project charter.
There should be a fairly comprehensive understanding of who stakeholders are; you could include the stakeholder matrix.

More stakeholders may appear later in the project, but your chances of success increase when you take the time to discover who your stakeholders are.
What are assumptions?

How are assumptions used in the project charter?
Assumptions are events, actions, concepts, or ideas you believe to be true.

It’s important to always document and validate your project assumptions.

I.e. T&S will be able to produce the training in this short time period.
What are constraints?

How are high-level constraints used in the project charter?
Constraints are anything that either restricts or dictates the actions of the project team (i.e. a hard date, like for a trade show)

Budgets, technology, scope, quality, and direct orders from upper management are all examples of constraints that could be included in the project charter.
What are the triple constraints according to CompTIA?

What do other industry experts refer to the triple constraints as?
• Time
• Budget
• Quality

-OR-

• Time
• Budget
• Scope
All of which affect quality
What are risks?

What sort of risks should be included in the project charter?

What is the difference between a risk and a constraint?
Risks pose either opportunities or threats to the project.

• Process risks
• Budget risks
• Scheduling risks
• Political risks
• Legal risks
• Management risks

A constraint is a limitation that currently exists; a risk is a potential future event that could impact the project
What is the project approach section of the project charter used for?
This section of the charter is where you formulate the approach you and your project team will take in bringing about the deliverables of the project.
What other content might be included in the project charter?
• Name of the project manager
• Name of the project sponsor
• Team members you’ve already committed to serve time on the project team
What does issuing the project charter do to the project phase?

Who should receive a copy of the project charter?
It moves the project from the initiating phase to the planning phase.

All stakeholders