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78 Cards in this Set

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What are antiquated systems that continue to provide business value to organizations and are very costly to replace
Legacy systems
What is the first step in the design phase?
developing the design strategy
What is the silver bullet syndrom?
o No single solution can solve all the design problems
What are the three types of design strategies?
Custom Development, Packaged Software, Outsourcing
What types of design strategies are used in the following situations?
o Business need is unique
o Business need is general
o Business need is not critical
Custom development

– Packaged system

– Outsourcing
What type of design strategy would be used in the following situations?
o In-house functional and technical experience exists
o In-house functional experience exists
o In-house functional or technical experience does not exist
– Custom development

– Packaged system

– Outsourcing
What type of design strategy would be used in the following situations?

o Desire to develop in-house skills
o Developing skills is not important and not strategic
o Project skills is not strategic
– Custom development

– Packaged system

– Outsourcing
What type of design strategy would be used in the following situations?

o Highly skilled and experienced manager available
o Project manager has experience coordinating with vendors
– Custom development

– Packaged systems and Outsourcing
What type of design strategy would be used in the following situations?

o Time frame is flexible
o Time frame short
o Time frame flexible or short
– Custom development

– Packaged software

– Outsourcing
What is used to organize the pros and cons of the design alternatives
 Alternative matrix
What is an RFP?
Request for proposals
Regarding the three views of a system, what view describes external behavior of the system from the perspective of the user (Use Cases, Use Case Diagrams)?
Functional View
Regarding the three views of a system, what view describes the structure of the system in terms of attributes, operations, classes and relationship (Class & Object Diagrams)?
static view
Regarding the three views of a system, what view describes the internal behavior of the system. (Interaction and Statechart Diagrams)
Dynamic view
What are three techniques that allows us to evolve analysis models into design models?
o Factoring
o Partitions and Collaborations
o Layers
What refers to creating a high level idea from a group of ideas?
abstraction
What refers to the opposite of abstraction. Involves identifying new sub classes
refinement
What does MVC stand for?
 Model – View – Controller architecture
What is the symbol for a package?
a tabbed folder
A dependency relationship in a package diagram is shown as what type of arrow?
a dashed arrow
What does this describe?
o defines the process and data that each object contains
o They represent factories that create objects
o is a set of objects that share some common structures and behaviors
o are used to distinguish one type of object from another
classes
What does this describe?
o Objects are instances of classes
o They are basic building blocks of an O-O system.
Objects
What does this describe?
o are properties of an object
o describe the data about the object
Attributes
What does this describe?
o refers to the values that the attributes contain for each object
States
What does this describe?
refer to the processes the objects can perform
Methodes
What does this describe?
o Objects execute methods in response to these
o is a function or procedure call from one object to another object.
o is the instruction whereas, method is the implementation
Messages
What does this describe?
o Mechanism that combines data and processes into a single object
o is a form of information hiding
o An objects does this to data and methods
 User cannot see the inside of the object but can use the object by calling the object’s methods
o suggests that objects hide information and expose only sufficient information that allows it’s usage
o Objects are treated as black boxes.
o All communication between objects occurs only through object’s methods which are also called object interfaces
Encapsulation
What does this describe?
o suggests that same message can be interpreted differently by different classes of objects
o is achieved through dynamic binding of methods
o Dynamic binding means specific method that would be called is decided at run-time depending on the actual object that the object variable refers to.
o Implementation of dynamic binding is language specific
Polymorphism
What does this describe?
allows classes to share and reuse behavior and attributes
o A subclass (child class) inherits all the properties and methods defined in the superclass (parent class).
Inheritance
What are the three types of design criteria?
o Coupling
o Cohesion
o Connascence
What does coupling mean?
o Coupling refers to the interdependency and interrelationship between modules (class, method or objects)
Is the design goal to have low coupling or high coupling?
Low coupling
What describes how well the different components within each module are integrated or stick together. Greater this stickiness among various pieces within each module, greater the cohesion
Cohesion
Is the design goal to have low cohesion or high cohesion?
high cohesion
What means “to be born together”
o Modules that are intertwined so much, that changes made to one module requires changes to other module
Connascence
What are the four steps to design classes and methodes?
o Additional specification
o Identifying opportunities for re-use
o Re-structuring the design
o Optimizing the design
Constraints include what two types of conditions?
preconditions and postconditions
What are constraints that should be true for all instances of classes like data type of attributes, values that the attributes can take etc
invariants
What is a group of collaborating classes that provide solutions to commonly occurring problems?
Patterns
What is a set of implemented classes that can used as basis for implementing an application?
Framework
What is a set of implemented classes that are much broader compared to Framework?
Class libraries
What is self contained piece of software that can be readily plugged into the system?
Components
What does factoring out common attributes and methods into new classes through the process of abstraction and refinement refer to?
factoring
What does assuring all inheritance relationships support only generalization/specialization semantics refer to?
Normalization
What refers to the number of messages sent out by each method. If a method has a high fan out, it needs to be optimized
Fan-Out
What is a document that explains the requirements of the system that is proposed to be built and solicits proposals from vendors to explain how their products can meet the requirements of the proposed system
RFP, request for proposals
What type of files is the following referring to?
Read, write, and search
Efficient for report writing
Searches are not efficient because an average of 50% of records have to be accessed
Two versions
Ordered
unordered
sequential files
What type of files:
Allow only random or direct file operations
Good for finding and updating a specific object
Inefficient report writing
random access files
What does SQL stand for?
Structured Query language
What type of relational database does the following describe?
Relational database management systems with extensions that handle object storage in the relational table structure
This is done by user defined types
Object-Relational Databases
What type of relational database does the following describe?
Add persistence extensions to an object-oriented programming language
Create a entirely separate database management system
Object-Oriented Databases (OODBMS)
What defines how systems exchange information with other systems
system interface
What defines how the system will interact with external entities like customers, suppliers, or other systems
user interface
What defines how programs communicate with each other.
Application programing interface
What refers to the ability of an interface to make the user aware of the information it contains with the least amount of effort on the user’s part.
Content awareness
What refers to designing interfaces that are pleasing to the eye?
Aesthetics
What is an outline of the steps that the users perform to accomplish some part of their work
use scenario
What defines the basic components of the interface and how they work together to provide functionality to users
Interface Structure Design
What are the basic design elements that are common across the individual screens, forms, and reports within the system.
 Interface Standards Design
What is a concept from the real world that is used as a model for the computer system.
o Interface Metaphor
What is a “mock-up” or a simulation of a computer screen, form or report
o Interface design prototype
What is a paper-based prototype design of interfaces that shows flow of control from one screen to another.
Storyboard prototype
What is built using the actual programming language?
Language prototype
What type of interface evaluation examines the interface by comparing it to a set of heuristics or principles of interface design
 Heuristic evaluation
What type of interface evaluation deals with the meeting conducted with the users to simulate the interfaces
 Walk-through evaluation
What type of interface evaluation deals with the Users trying out the system
 Interactive evaluation
What is the process of defining how the users will interact with the system and the nature of the inputs and outputs that the system accepts and produces.
Navigation Design
T/F  Analyst have to make certain assumptions about the users
o They have not read the manual
o They have not attended the training
o Do not have external help readily at hand
T
What refers to designing the screens and forms to gather data for the application system
input design
What type of proccessing refers to:o The inputs are processed immediately as soon as they are entered into the system
 On-line Processing
What type of proccessing refers to:collects inputs over time and enters them into the system at one time in a batch
Batch Processing
What type of client does this refer to: client is also responsible for the application logic.
Thick/Fat Client
What type of client does this refer to: client that is only responsible for the presentation logic
Thin Client
What does DOC stand for?
Distributing Objects Computing
What does CORBA stand for
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
What does DCOM stand for?
 Distributed Component Object Model
What is is a diagram that shows major components of the information system and their geographical location through out the organization
 Network Model
What is a document that describes the hardware and software needed to support the new system
 Hardware and Software Specification Document