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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What makes up blood?
formed elements (cells) and plasma
total blood volume? portion that is plasma?
5.5-5.6 L
3-4 L
plasma portion of blood is what % water and what % proteins?
91-93% water
7-9% proteins
major solute of the plasma?
Fxnx of the blood
carry oxygen
inflimmation and immune mechanisms
What cells are in the blood?
erythrocytes (RCS)
leukocytes (WBC)
platelets (thrmobcytes)
hematocrat? Why varies it?
% of the blood occupied by erthryocytes
age and gender
plasma albumins
produced by the liver
-major role in maintaing osmotic pressures in the blood
-decreased albumin leves can cause edema
3 subtypes of plasam globulins
alpha and beta-made in liver, transport vitamins
gammaglobulins-made in lymphs, immunity
prdocued by the liver and a precursor for fibrin
plama proteins
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
Blood cells derived from
pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell found in bone marrow
2 liveages of stem cells
myeloid: RBC, graulocytes, myakrayocytes
Lyhmpoid: t-lymphs and b-lymphs
by products of the infection process that have been differntianted by a collection of proteins from outside the bone marrow
key messenger for red blood cells
buffy coat
leucoytes and platelets, on top of erthrocytes and underneat plasma
fxn of RBCs
transport Hgb-which binds and carries )2 to peripheral tisses
allosteric mechanims?
binding O2 decreases the affinity of Hgb for CO2 and vice versa
aka Haldane effect
What can Hgb be bound ot
H, Co2, and O2
What enzyme that RBCs contain make it a good body buffer
large about os carbonic anhydrase, catalyzes the rexn which allows C02 to be carried in the blood as bicarbonate
prethroblast-reticulocyte-mature RBC
What happens as the RBC dveleops?
HGb concentration increases, cell organelles lost, and nucleus condenses
At what stange does the cell pass from the bone marrow to the circulation?
reticulocyte (1%) of cells
When does final maturation of RBCs occur?
after 1-2 days in the circulation
average lifespan of RBc? shape?
120 days
disc-fit thru small spaces and good for diffusion
RBCs have a limited ability to...
produce ATP and metabolize glucose
RBC production should equal
RBC destruction
Too many RBCs causes
increase in viscosity of the blood that impedes blood flow
Avg RBCs for males and females
16 gm/dl
14gm/dl for females
pathway of erythropoiesis?
decreased oxygen to the kidneys-secretion of epo-activates bone marrow receptor-increases production of RBCS, increases blood Hb tconcentration, increase in blood O2 capacity
blood flow to kidnesy is what portion?
what amount of epo is synthesized and secreted by the kidney?
90%, secreted in response to low tissue oxygenations
factors that cuases enhanced secretion of Epo?
anemia, altitude, hemorrhage, circulatory disease, cardiac failure, pulmonary disease
Metabloic requirements for erythrogenis
vitamin B12 and folic acid-reqd for DNA sytnehsis adn maturation of RBCs
Intrinsic factor
secreted from the stomach, binds to vitamin b12, prevents digestion by the GI enzymes and promotes absorption into the circulation
-can be a cause for dificiency of vitamin B12
Iron and hemoglobin
-iron required to make hemoglybin
-Iron endocytosed into the bone marrow and syntheis of Hgb begins in proerythroblast
Daily los of iorn in males?
in females?
toxic in high doses?
.6 mg
1.3 mg
how much of total body iron found in Hgb/by recycling form RBC destruction?
iron bount to apoferetin that is stored in the liver
ingested iron that has been absorbed into the circulationa nd bound to the protein, than travels as transferin
binds w/ cell membrane in the proerythroblast and is endocytosed and used to synthesis Hgb
excess iron stored in these cells, which can be toxic
iron lost daily in...
feces, urine, skin, and w/ blood loss
How is a Hgb molecule made up
4 Hgb chains, each chain w/ a heme moiety and globin portion.
Each heme can contain iron and carry 1 molecule of O2
How do the GI cells determine the amount of iron absorbed each day?
-saturation of transferrin
-decreased liver production of apotransferrin
-both part of th feedback process
what happens when there is excess iron
most is lost in the fecces, however hemosiderin deposition increase
which cells are most vulnerable to toxic levels of iron
liver cells
where is the mjor site for destroying old RBCs
the spleen, b/c they rupture as the flow throught the small spaces
What happens to the Hgb released from ruptured RBCs
its phagocytosed by macrophages and returned to the liver for storage or transported to the bone marrow for production of new Hb
macrophges convert breakdown products of the hemoglobin into this
-secreted into the bile by the liver
-can cause jaundice if their is rapid accumulation of it in the blood
-classified by
a deficiency of Hgb due to
-decreased # of RBCS
-decreased amout of Hgb/RBC
Inadequate transport of O2 to the tissue
-classified by morpholgy changes or the iron deficiency
normal size cell
abnormally large cell
abnormally small cell
normal amounts of Hgb in RBC
high amounts of Hgb in RBC
low amounts of Hgb in RBC
the effect of anemia on the body
greater demand/workload on the heart
signs/symptoms of anemia
decreased exercised tolerance
too many red blood cells
-increased viscosity, sluggish blood flow
secondary polycthemia
occurs whenerve there is too little o2 to the tissue
-caused by altitude and cardiac failure
polycythemia vera
pathological condition where too many RBCs are produced