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13 Cards in this Set

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How do amino acids tell us about the relatedness of species?
Similar amino acid sequences implies closer relationship
Phylum Porifera
lacks true structure
water flows out through osculum (little mouth)
collar cells- have flagella that creates water current
Spicules- rough parts for protection made from calcium carbonate
Spongin- flexable fibers of protein
asymetricle
filter feeders
collar cells and amebosites engulf and transport nutrients
sexual or asexual reproduction
hermaphrodites
budding durring cold winters
No nervous system
Phylum Molluska
snails, slugs, oysters, clams, octopus, squids
soft body, hard shell
radula scrapes up food
cephalopods have well developed nervous system
Phylum Annelida
Hirudinea- Leaches
Oligochaeta- Earthworms
Polychaetes- Marine Worms (with appendages)

full digestive tract
crop- stores food
gizzard- grinds food
nephridia- passes urea
Phylum Arthropoda
Spiders, Beetles, Bees, Wasps, Butterflies, Moths, Etc.

segmented body
molts exosceleton
open circulatory system
single chambered heart
solid waste-anus
malphignian tubules- remove nitrogenous waste from blood
sexual reproduction
Phylum Echinodermata
starfish
watervascular system- canals branch to tube feet (feeding and respiration)
radial symmetry
dueterostomes
Animal Body Plan
1. Polarization- head is where sperm enters
2. Cleavage- zygote divides repeatedly. More cells form blastula
3. Gastrulation- blastula creates internal cavity
Gastrula (3 layers of cells)
Ectoderm- skin, nervous system
Endoderm- Digestive tissue
Mesoderm- muscles, reproductive and circulatory system
Protosome v. Deuterostome
dueterostomes- anus first, mouth second
Protosome- opposite
Oviparous
Egg layed
Viviparous
Live birth (viva)
Ovoviparous
Born alive from the mother but held as an unshelled egg internally until birth
3 classes of fish
Agnatha- Lampreys, filter feeders
Chondricthyes- Chondros, cartilagenous fish
Osterichthyes- Bony fish