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137 Cards in this Set

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simple vs. stratified epithelium
simple is 1 layer of cells (ex. cover intestinal villus) and stratified is more than 1 layer (ex. epidermis)
sqaumous cells
flat, ex. epithelium
cuboidal
cubed
columnar
cells are tall cubes with the nucleus near the basement membrane, ex. covering the intestinal villus
avascular
not associated with or supplied by blood vessels
fibroblast
a connective-tissue cell of mesenchymal origin that secretes proteins and especially molecular collagen from which the extracellular fibrillar matrix of connective tissue forms
matrix
Ground substance in which things are embedded or that fills a space (as for example the space within the mitochondrion). most common usage is for a loose meshwork within which cells are embedded (e.g. Extracellular matrix), although it may also be used of filters or absorbent material.
collagen
the most common protein in the body, most predominate in fibrocartilage , fibers are good for addressing tensile forces, found in intervertebral disks, the pubic symphysis, and discs within the knees
elastin
gives elastic cartilage a flexible, springy property, provides the internal support of the ear and epiglottis
integument
the skin covering the body
epidermis
derived from the ectoderm, stratified squamous epithelium, cells near the basal layer are cuboidal and mitotic to produce the cells for the other layers
dermis
from the mesoderm (dermatome), collagenous at basement membrane, origin of the reticular lamina, consists of collagen fibers (amount and arrangement determines the strength and tensile properties), plies, irregular
keratin
accumlation of various protein products
keratinization
during the demise of proteins, the formation of keratin which makes a nonliving layer that serves to reduce water loss through the skin in dry terrestial environments or in areas with a lot of friction
plies
distinct layers of collagen fibers, folds
thread cells (Myxini)
cells that discahrge thick cords of mucus to the skin surface when the fish is irritated
"ostracoderm" scales/plates
bony plates of dermal armor that form an exoskeleton, on the head are large forming the head shields but on the body are smaller forming scales; surface has small mushroom shaped tubercles that have a layer of enamel (epidermis) over a layer of dentin (from neural crest), organized in a pattern, interspersed w/ unicellular glands; dermal bone (dermis) vascular and lamellar
placoid scales
well organized surface denticles that have a loss of the dermal bone, serve to reduce friction
epidermis- secretory cells and stratified cells
dermis- fibrous connective tissue
Hypomere
Gives rise to the gonads and lining of the coelom
Explain the development of the hyomere in vertebrates
1. Forms a slit within the hypomere
2. Separate development on each side
3. Space enlarges
4. Lining on each side emerges to form mesenteries
Coelom
Closed body cavity lines with mesoderm
What are the three compartments of the coelom?
the pericardial cavity, the pleuroperitoneal cavity, and the peritoneal cavity
Mesenteries
Double layers of splanchnic mesoderm with connective tissue layer in between; suspends organs
Through what do ducts, nerves and blood vessels travel?
mesenteries
Pleural cavity
Cavity surrounding the lungs
Pleuroperitoneal cavity
Thoracic and abdominal; may include lungs
Peritoneal cavity
surronds heart; present in all vertebrates
Morphological Evolution
Changes of how and when things are expressed; Changes in developmental mechanisms can result in large-scale morphological differences
Mechanisms of Morphological Evolution (2)
- Changes in embryonic development
- Changes in ontogenetic development
What is the implication of the ratio of surface area to volume in vertebrates?
Exchange of materials between organisms and environment – demand scales with volume but rate is limited by surface area
What is a possible implication of cells getting too big?
the rate of oxygen diffusing across cannot keep up with the largeness of structure
What are the physical constraints on evolution? (4)
- Size and shape (gravity, energy requirements prevent some layouts at certain sizes)
- Some body plans do not work
- Things possible at some sizes are not possible at all sizes
- Changes affect energy requirements – effects of gravity
Allometry
Change in size or shape of one part correlated with the change in size or shape of another part
What is the difference between ontogenetic and phylogenetic allometry?
Ontogenetic – developmental
Phylogenetic – evolutionary
What are the mechanisms of allometry? (3)
- Changes in genes that control ontogenetic allometry may result in phylogenetic allometry
- Change in timing of expression
- Change in duration of expression
Heterochrony
Changes in ontogenetic timing
What are the different variations of heterochrony? (3)
- The change in the time that a characteristic appears in ontogeny relative to its appearance in ancestor
- Changes in the timing or order of appearance of morphological characters
- Can cause some characteristics to never appear, and some to appear much sooner
Heterotropy
Evolutionary change in spatial patterning of development
Homeobox/Homeotic Genes
Stretch of DNA that is involved with regulating development
Hox genes
Regulates the pattern of the body axis; Determine where limbs will grow in fetus or larva
Homeotic mutations
Cause one region of the body to be transformed into the identity of a different region
What type of mutation is likley to have contributed to the complex body plan of vertebrates?
Homeotic mutations
Paedomorphosis
Adults have characteristics resembling the juveniles of ancestors
Peramorphosis
Adults have characteristics that are like exaggerated or elongated versions of the adults of ancestors
Tissue
Group of similar cells that perform a common function
What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
What are the two basic morphologies of epithelium?
Sheet-like and glandular
What are the characteristics of epithelium?
- Can form from in all 3 germ layers
- Close cell-to-cell contact
- No intercellular fibers
- No blood vessels
- Basal layer (derived from epithelium and underlying connective tissues)
Describe sheet-like epithelium.
covers surfaces or lines spaces
Epithelium
on a surface, exposed to an opening
Mesothelium
lines large space (i.e. coelom)
Endothelium
lines small spaces (i.e. blood vessels, head)
What are the two major ways to classify epithelium
number of cell layers and shaped of cell
Simple epithelium
1 layer
Stratified epithelium
more than 1 layer
Squamous epithelium
cells flat
Cuboidal epithelium
cells cube-shaped
Columnar epithelium
cells tall with nucleus near basement membrane
What are the functions of connective tissue? (4)
- Connecting body parts (i.e. ligaments connect bones)
- Framework for organs
- Skeleton
- Blood transport medium for circulatory system
What is connective tissue derived from?
mostly mesoderm but some neural crest
What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
- Cells scattered
- Extracellular matrix
- Ground substance of poteins, mucopolysaccharides, and fibers
- most are vascular (except cartilage)
Avascular
Few blood vessels transverse it; cartilage is a connective tissue that is avascular
Fibloblast
Fibrous connective tissue that forms tendons and ligaments as well as much of the dermis of the skin and the outer capsules of organs; Distinctive cell that secretes the extracellular matrix
Matrix
- Solid matrix = bones and cartilage (skeletal tissues)
- Liquid matrix = blood
Collagen
- Made of the protein collagen – most abundant
- Dense regular connective tissue (forms tendons)
- Dense irregular connective tissue forms dermis of the skin
Elastin
Made of the protein elastin – stretch
Reticular Fibers
- Made of protein collagen but thinner and shorter than “collagen fibers”
- Arranged in a network
- Holds organs together
Integument
- Largest organ of the body
- Formed by dermis and epidermis
- Form teeth, denticles, scales of fish, skin, feathers, etc.
Epidermis
Surface of the skin; Produces the basal lamina; Produces hair, feathers, baleen, claws, nails, horns, beaks, and some types of scales
What is the epidermis derived from?
ectoderm
Dermis
Produces the reticular lamina; Produces dermal bones and osteoderms of reptiles
What is dermis derived from?
Derived from mesoderm and mesenchyme
Keratin
A class of proteins produced during keratinization; Component of epidermal derivatives such as hair, quills, feathers, lamprey teeth, reptilian scales, sheath of hooves and horns
Keratinization
as epidermal cells near the surface self detruct in an orderly fashion, keratin proteins accumulate and form a cornified layer
What is the nonliving layer that serves to reduce water loss through the skin in dry terrestrial environments?
Keratin
Plies
Distinct layers in which collagen fibers are woven; Give shape to the skin and prevent it from sagging
Thread cells (Myxini)
Cells in hagfish that discharge thick cords of mucous to the skin surface whenever the fish is irritated
“Ostracoderm” scales/plates
Surface consists of raised tubercles capped with dentin and enamel enclosing a pulp cavity; Rest upon dermal bone
Describe Placoid Scales
- Surface denticles of cartilaginous fishes
- Dermal origin but projects through the epidermal layer
- Cap of enamel at the tip and dentin beneath
Lamellar bone
Orderly, regular arrangement of collagenous fibers within the matrix, accompanied by the regular orientation of bone cells; Layered
Vascular bone
bone with many blood vessels running through it
Dentin
hard layer/coating with dermal origin
Enamal
hard, accellular coating with epidermal origin
Ganoid scales
Ø A scale is covered with a thick surface of enamel (ganoin)
Ganoin
an enamel-like substance that is shiny; derivative of the enamel that covers some fish scales
Cosmoid Scales
Ø On a double layer of bone (lamellar and vascular), dentin, and then a thin layer of enamel (cosmine
Cosmine
thin layer of enamel; derivative of dentin that covers some fish scales
Cycloid Scales
- Composed of concentric rings, circuli
- The new circuli are continually laid down as the scales grow
Ctenoid Scales
Have circuli and fringe projections along the posterior margin
Epidermal Scales
A scale in which the epidermis predominates, especially in the form of a thickened keratinized layer
Characteristics of a Feather
- Product of the epidermis and keratinizing system
- Nonvascular
- Nonnervous
- Laid in distinctive tracts
- Replaced during 1 or more molts a year
- Develop from follicles and grows outward into a sheathed case
Characteristics of Hair
- Originates in the dermis at the root
- Length being a shaft
- Surrounded by a cuticle
- Arrector pili muscles in the dermis pull to erect it
Osteoblast
type of bone fibroblast that engages in osteogenesis (production of new bone cells)
What are some characteristics of osteoblasts?
- Vascular
- Have lots of finger-like projections
- Secrete enzymes that cause deposition of Calcium Phosphate on collagen
- Responsible for formation of collagen fibers
- Create channels in the solid matrix
Chondroblast
Type of cartilage fibroblast that is responsible for producing collagen fibers and the deposition of chondroitin sulfate; Avasular
Lacunae
- A small space connected to the blood supply; Spaces where the cells are trapped
- Occur in connective rings around the Haversian canal
Calcium phosphate
Deposited by the osteoblasts onto the collagen fibers in bones
characteristics of Compact bone
- Appears absolutely solid with no spaces
- Has elaborate system of tiny channels with blood vessels
- Can be lamellar or Haversian
Characteristics of Haversain bone
- Has Haversian or Central canal with contains blood vessels
- Where osteons used to be are lacunae
- Oxygen moves in through canniliculi
Characteristics of Spongy bone
- Spaces between plates of bone when deposition occurs
- Fairly thin layers of bone deposition
- Spaces contain blood or hemopoetic tissue
Chondroitin Sulfate
Deposited by the chondroblasts on collagen fibers in cartilage
Types of cartilage (3)
hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage
Describe hyaline cartiage
- Most common
- Synovial joints
- Chondrocranium
- Cartilaginous ends of moveable bone
- Cannot see obvious fibers
Describe elastic cartilage
- Can see fibers
- Flexible
- Pinnea of ear
Describe fibrocartilage
- Can see some fibers
- Transitional
- Found primarily in intervertebral discs
Appositional growth
- Production of bone in the deep connective tissue from osteoblasts without a cartilage precursor
- Growth around the edges; Intramembranous bone development; Slow
Interstitial growth
- Growth within the matrix of cartilage
- Cartilage can continue growing from within; Very rapid compared to bone growth
Intermembranous (dermal) bone
Bone formed directly from ossification of the mesenchyme without a cartilage precursor
What skeletal structures form from intermembranous (dermal) bone?
skull, pectoral girdle, and integument; dermatocranium
Endochondral (cartilage replacement) bone
Within or from cartilage; allows for continued growth
What skeletal structures form from endochondral bone?
chondrocranium, splanchnocranium, vertebrae and ribs, appendicular skeleton, some pectoral, pelvic girdle, long bones
Splanchnocranium
- Supports the gills and offer support to the respiratory muscles
- Examples: inner ear of mammals, jaw and hyoid apparatus of gnathostomes
Chondrocranium
- Head mesenchyme that condenses to cartilage like parachordals, trabeculae, occipitals, and cartilaginous capsules; forms the adult braincase; cartilage fuses and then ossifies into seperate bones
What does the chondrocranium derive from?
- Neural crest cells contribute to form the nasal capsule, trabeculae, and part of the otic capsule
- Mesenchyme of the mesoderm contributes to form the rest of the chondrocranium
What are the parts of the chondrocranium?
- Two pairs of elongate cartilages
- Trabeculae – anterior
- Parachordals – posterior
- Three pairs of sensory capsules
- Nasal, optic, and otic
What are the characteristics of Dermatocranium?
- Dermal bones that contribute to the skull
- Originally was enlarged bony armor that sunk in
- Joined firmly at sutures
- Never has cartilage precursor
What are the series of dermatocranium in the skull?
- Facial – encircle nares; forms snout
- Orbital – surround eye
- Temporal – behind orbit; posterior wall of braincase, notch for tympanum, fenestrae for jaw muscles
- Palatal – hard plate; may have teeth
- Vault – roof of skull
- Secondary Jaws
Trabecular cartilages (in chondrocranium)
Anterior pair of elongate cartilages; Fuse to form ethmoid plate
Parachordal cartilages
Posterior pair of elongate cartilages; Fuse with basal plate to from sphenoid and occipital compartment
Nasal capsules
Sensory capsule associated with the nose; Neural crest contributes to form nasal capsule
Optic capsules
Sensory capsule associated with the eyes
Otic capsules
Sensory capsule associated with the ears
What are the separate elements of the branchial arch?
pharyngobranchial, epibranchial, ceratobranchial, hypobranchial, and basibranchial
What is the branchial arch derived from?
neural crest
Hyoid arch
Second arch following mandibular arch; Derivative is hyomandibular
Hyomandibular
Prominent element of the hyoid arch; Jaw support (some fishes); forms Columella (Tetrapods)and Stapes (Mammals)
Primary upper jaw
- platoquadrate
- Splanchnocranium with dermal elements
- Fused to form braincase
Primary lower jaw
- Meckel’s cartilage (ossified to form articular)
Derivative of Palatoquadrate
epipterygoid and quadrate
Derivative of Meckel’s cartilage
articular
Quadrate
Suspends the lower jaw except in mammals
Articular
Posterior end of Meckel’s cartilage that protrudes and ossifies
Columella
Derived from hyomandibula; involved in hearing
Stapes
one of three middle ear bones in mammals; derived from the columella
Incus
The middle ear bone of mammals derived from the quadrate
Malleus
One of three middle ear bones in mammals; derived from articular bone
Symplectic bone
Aids in jaw suspension