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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Slime Bacteria -- mycetozoans
support theory that hormones existed before mulkticellular organisms. cAMP instructs cells to 'glob' together.
different kinds of chemical signaling..
paracrine - influence local cells
endocrin/hormone - long distance signaling
what are the three processes of chemical signaling?
2)signal transduction
What are the different kinds of cell surface receptors?
-G-protein linked receptors
-tyrosine-kinase receptors
-ligand gated ion channels
What are the different intracellular receptors?
-cytoplasmic receptor proteins (testosterone)
-nuclear receptor proteins (thyroxine)
G-protein linked receptors
signal molecule converts GDP
->GTP. GTP activates protein in the cell, which activates enzymes and elicits a cellular response
tyrosine-kinase receptors
signal molecules add P to tyrosine which binds relay proteins. the binding of relay proteins elicits a response
ligand-gated ion channel
ions bind to protein and opens gate
What is a phophorylation cascade?
protein kinases add phophate groups(from ATP) to inactive proteins to activate them
What is a second messenger?
does the bidding for the hormone inside the cell. examples : cAMP, IP3, CA2+, diaglycerol
Why does signal transduction have so many steps?
For amplification and specificity. Each step in a transduction pathway adds a little amplification. Specificity allows for verstility(each cell has different proteins and relay molecules that elicit diff responses)
-open/close ion channel
-activate or inactivate an enzyme
-activate transcription factor
-stimulate/inhibit protein production
tyrosine derivatives. H20 soluble - can't get through membrane. use cell surface receptors, quick --> signal-transduction pathways
Peptide/proteins/polypeptide chains
amino acids...H20 soluble, must use cell surface receptors, quick --> signal-transduction pathways
have a cholesterol backbone. lipid soluble - can pass through membrane (intracellular), slower -> transcription factors
thyroxins (thyroid hormones)
llipid soluble, can pass through membrane (intracellular reception), work slower --> transcription factors
T3 and T4 -- only hormones with iodine
Anterior Pituitary Gland
embryonically produced from out-pocket of gut.
Posterior Pituitary
produced embryonically from outpocketing of the brain.(oxytocin, ADH). pituitary is controlled by hpyothalamus, neurohemal organ.
What is the hypophyseal portal system?
system of capillaries that conncects hypothalamus and ant. pituitary
how does the hypothalamus control the ant. pituitary?
hypothalamus releases releasing hormones and inhibiting homrones that cause the ant. pit. to release/inhibit hormones. (example: TSH-RH cuases release of TSH by ant. pit.)
How is the posterior pituitary controlled?
neurosecretory cells -- ADH and oxytocin. post. pit. hold hormones in the brain until it's time to release the hormones.
What is axoplasmic Flow?
Kinesin 'walks' down the microtubule