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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what defines sychronous muscle?
-1 contraction/1 action potential
What defines asynchronous muscle?
-Multilple contractions/1 action potential.
-uniterminal innervation -- common in vertebrates
slow oxidative or fast glycolytic
-Multiterminal innervation (rare in vertebrates)
invertebrate muscle
-polyneuronal, multiterminal
inhibitors and modulators
gylocolytic fibers would need:
few mitochondria, few capillaires, high [glycogen],
-would fatigue quickly
oxidative slow fibers would need:
many mitochondria, many capillaries, low [glycogen]
-would fatigue slowly
Asynchronous Muscle...
contract by Ca2+ and STRETCH. when one muscle stretches, the other muscle contracts. (insect flight)
multi-unit smooth muscle
few gap junctions, few SR
multi-unit smoothe muscle
each cell works individually
-few gap junctions, few SR, slow contraction
single-unit smooth muscle
cells work together
-gap junctions, few SR, can spontaneously produce action potentials
Pacemaker Potential -- the effects of norepinephrine and acetycholine
acetycholine results in fewer action potentials. norepinephrine results in more action potentials
molluscan catch muscle
contracts muscle and hold it. uses little ATP b/c mollusk makes crossbridges and doesn't break them
Brain Heaters
brain heaters are modified muscle. heater tissue composed of many mitochondria surrounded by SR. heat produced by mitochondria and calcium pump which converts ATP -> ADP + P + heat