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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Muscles are classified by ___ & _____ muscles. This classification has fallen out of avor because such a color distinction alone underestimates thh complexity of muscles.
red, white
location classification: _______ _______ moves bones (or cartilages)
somatic muscles
location classification: ________ _______ control the activity of organs, vessels, and ducts
visceral muscles
control classification: _________ _______ are under immediate conscious control
voluntary muscles
control classification: ___________ _______ are not under immediate conscious control
involuntary muscles
microscopic classification: ________ muscle appears to have cross bands or striations
skeletal
microscopic classification: Individual _______ muscle cells are short, mononucleate, often branched, and joined to each other by distincy intercalated disks.
cardiac
microscopic classification: ______ muscle lacks striations
smooth
__________ is the term given to the cell membrane in a muscle cell
sarcolemma
the elaboraded smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a muscle cell
sarcoplasmic reticulum
individual skeletal muscle cells are usually les than _ __ long
5 cm
long units that pack each skeletal muscle cell
myofibrils
chain of repeating units in a myofibril
sacromeres
thick myofilament
myosin
thin myofilament
actin
specialized attachment sites of cardiac muscle
intercalated disks
individual skeletal muscle cells are wrapped in this connective tissue
endomysium
groups of skeletal muscle cells are bundled by more of these wrappings
perimysium
the entire muscle is covered by this outer sheet of fibrous connective tissue
epimysium
by convention, the term muscle fiber applies to ________ or ______, but not a _______ muscle cell
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
fleshy part of a muscle organ
belly or gaster
ends of a muscle organ that join skeleton or adjacent organs
attachments
bundle of muscle cells defined by its particular perimysium
fascicle
various wrappings of connective tissue extend beyond the ends of the muscle fibers establishing a cordlike attachment called _______
tendons
Tendons drawn out into thin, flat sheets of tough connetive tissue are ___________
aponeuroses
sheets of fibrous connective tissue that wrap and bind parts of the body together
fascia
a muscle receiving no nervous stimulation is relaxed or in a _______ _____
resting state
1. The direction of an applied force that tends to pull apart an object. 2. The force produced by muscle contraction.
tensile force
When nerves stimulate a muscle to its thershold level, contraction results and generates tensile force, constituting the ______ _____ of the muscle
active state
The bone to which the muscle is attached and the masss that must be moved represent this external resistance
load
6 muscle functions
movement (restraint), protection, heat production, noise, very low voltage electricity, protein source
5 ways of muscle classification
embryonic origin, color, location, nervous control, microscopic appearance
Because cardiac cells can contract w/o nervous stimulation, the __________ _____ are a means of communication
intercalated disks
Muscle action that decreases the angle at the joint
flex
Muscle action that increases the angle at the joint
extend
Muscle action that moves bone away from midline
abduct
Muscle action that moves bone toward the midline
adduct
Muscle action to project
protraction
Muscle action to bring in
retraction
Muscle action to lift
elevate
Muscle action to drop
depress
rotation: ventral side up, dorsal side down
supination
rotation: dorsal side up, ventral side down
pronation
sphincter: to close
constrict
sphincter: to open
dialate
dark macromolecule that stores oxygen and looks red
myoglobin
relatively slow contracting, low force, sustained contraction muscles
tonic fibers
generally fast contracting muscle
twitch (phasic) fibers
force required to stretch the relaxed muscle to greater lengths that results from th elastic constituents of the muscle, mainly from its collagenous fibers
passive tension
measurement of tension at different lengths whne the muscle is contracting
total tension
contribution of tension made by the active component alone, derived from the difference between total tension and passive tension
active tension
nervous excitation is ___-__-____
all-or-none
One way in which graded force is generated is by ____ __________
rate modulation
Up to a point, force increases as the ____, not the intensity, of arriving nerve impulses increases.
rate
single motor neuron together with the unique set of muscle fibers it innervates
motor unit
the cross-sectional area of a muscle perpendicular to its longitudinal axis
morphological cross section
a muscle's ____________ _____ _______ represents the cross-sectional area of all muscle fibers perpendicular to their longitudinal axes
physiological cross section
a long muscle and a short muscle of equal physiological cross sections, generate the ____ forces
same
muscle in which all fibers lie along the line of tension generated
parallel muscle
muscle in which all fibers lie oblique to the line of force generated, and it is inserted on a common tendon that receives the incluned muscle fibers
pinnate muscle