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78 Cards in this Set

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What is a chemistry profile?
A group of chemical tests appropriate for a given species and a given organ.
What does normal plasma/serum color look like?
Clear to straw colored.
What does icteric plasma/serum color look like?
Yellow/gold.
What does hemolyzed plasma/serum color look like?
Red to translucent red.
What does lipemic plasma/serum color look like?
White or milky.
Why are blood chemistries used?
To provide information on an organ system, eletrolytes, or nutrients (protein).
What color top is used for serum?
Red or marble top
How much blood do you need for a chemical test?
Enough for 2 tests. 3mls of blood yields 1 ml of serum.
What can happen to the blood if it's not centrifuged right after collection.
It can lower blood glucose and ammonia levels.
What are signs of liver disease?
Weight loss, anorexia, V/D, PU/PD, jaundice, ascites, dehydration, hemorrhage, encephalopathy (brain problems).
What tests would you run if you suspect liver disease?
Chemistries, CBC, UA, radiology, ultrasound, biopsy, culture/sensitivity.
What chemistry tests can be used to detect liver disease?
Alanine transferase, Aspartate transferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase(LA), glutamic dehydrogenase (cattle/sheep), alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, blood glucose, albumin, BUN, bild acid.
What chemistry tests can be used to detect kidney disease?
Blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, uric acid, potassium, phosphorus, amalyse.
What 4 things could be occuring if the BUN is elevated?
Pre-renal causes, renal cause, post-renal causes & gastrointestional hemorrhage.
With pancreatic disease what would you test to see the exocrine functioning?
The amalyse and lypase levels, increases with disease.
With pancreatic disease which tests would you run to check for endocrin function?
Increases in insulin & blood glucose levels for diabetese. Decreases in insulin & blood glucose levels for insulinoma.
What are the 5 electrolytes tested for evaluation of homeostasis?
Sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) Chloride (Cl-), calcium (Ca++), phosphorus (P).
What are sodium levels controlled by?
Aldosterone, which is secreted by the adrenal gland.
What do you need to remember when testing sodium levels? (what not to use)
Sodium heparin anticoagulant in the collection of blood will increase values.
What are potassium levels controlled by?
Aldosterone.
What is alkalosis?
A high blood pH
What is acidosis?
A low blood pH
Low levels of potassium can be caused by?
PU, diarrhea
High levels of potassium in the body can cause your body to do what?
An inability to make or pass urine.
What can cause low levels of chloride in the body?
vomiting, addison's disease.
What can cause high levels of chloride in the body?
dehydration
What can cause low levels of sodium in the body?
Vomiting, diarrhea, kidney dz, diabetes, cushings dz.
What can cause high levels of sodium in the body?
Dehydration, salt poisoning.
What can cause high levels of calcium in the body?
Bone destruction, kidney disease, too much Vit D, certain cancers, rat poison.
What can cause low levels of calcium in the body?
Eclampsia, milk fever.
What tube cannot be used for the collection of blood for a calcium test?
EDTA tubes because the EDTA binds to the calcium.
What hormone controls the levels of phosphorus in the body?
Parathyroid hormone.
What controls the level of calcium in the body?
Parathyroid hormone & calcitonin.
What can cause high levels of phosphorus?
Hemolysis, kidney disease, normal growth.
What can cause low levels of phosphorus?
Cancer, alkalosis (high pH), other hormonal disorders.
What are 3 protein chemical tests?
Albumin, globulin, total protein.
What can cause an elevated albumin level?
dehydration.
What can cause low levels of albumin?
Diarrhea, anorexia, burn victims, kidney disease, liver disease.
What can cause high levels of albumin?
Fighting off an infection, signs of inflammation, dehydration.
What does total protein measure?
The amount of albumin and globulin.
What are other conditions/tests to be run in a chemistry panel?
Protein levels and ketones.
Are ketones normally present in the body?
No.
Where do you look for ketones?
In the urine.
When are ketones made in the body?
When trying to make a new energy resource.
What are the 4 main functions of electrolytes?
Maintain water balance thru osmotic pressure, maintain constant pH, activation of blood coagulation & enzyme systems, maintain normal muscular & nervous functions.
What are normal blood pH's?
7.35-7.45
What is an acidic pH?
Anything below 7.0.
What is a basic pH?
Anything above 7.0.
What are the 4 components to amino acids?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen.
What part of the body is mainly responsible for maintaining electrolyte concentrations?
The kidneys.
Will the BUN increase or decrease with liver disease?
Decrease.
Will the BUN increase or decrease with kidney failure?
Increase.
Does bilirubin increase or decrease with liver disease?
Increase.
Do potassium levels increase or decrease with kidney failure?
Increase
Do amalyse and lypase increase or decrease with pancreatic disease?
Increase.
What is ALT?
Alanine transferase
What is AST?
Asparatate transferase
What is SDH?
Sorbitol dehydrogenase
What is GD?
Glutamic dehydrogenase
What is ALP?
Alkaline phosphatase
What is BUN?
Blood Urea Nitrogen
What tests are used to detect liver disease?
ALT, AST, SDH, GD
What is GGT?
Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
What can happen if there is a delay in getting the blood centrifuged?
Lower glucose and ammonia levels.
What tests are used to evaluate the liver?
ALT, AST, ALP, Bilirubin, bile acid
What tests are used to indicate liver function?
Blood glucose, albumin, BUN, bild acid test
What are the two main tests to detect kidney disease?
BUN & creatine
What is azotemia?
Urea in the blood
Between BUN & creatine, which is more specific for detecting kidney disease?
Creatine
What tests are used to check for pancreatic disease?
Amylase, lipase
What tests are used to help diagnose diabetes?
Blood glucose, insulin
Does blood glucose increase or decrease with diabetes?
Increase
Does insulin increase or decrease with diabetes?
Decrease
What is insulinoma?
A cancerous tumor that produces insulin.
Does blood glucose increase or decrease with insulinoma?
Decrease
Does insulin increase or decrease with insulinoma?
Increase
What is P?
Phosphorus
What is K+?
Potassium