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31 Cards in this Set

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Authoritarianism
small group exercises power over state; government isn't constitutionally responsible; public has little/no role in selection; freedom restricted; can be institutionalized and legitimate
totalitarianism
authoritarian regime with a central ideological point;uses violence as a tool; seeks to control all aspects of society; relatively rare (stalin)
Liberal view of the Economic source of Authoritarianism
capitalism undermines authoritarianism by promoting the distribution of wealth and creation of a middle class that favors democratic rule
Communist view of the Economic source of Authoritarianism
Capitalism inevitable creates inequality, often necessitating autheroitarianism to prevent the redistribution of wealth among the people.
Cultural source of the Societal source of Authoritarianism
Certain cultural institutions are more amenable to authoritarianism because they promote such values as hierarchy, community over individual rights, and deference to authority
Authoritarian means of Control
Coercion
Cooptation
Personality Cult
Coercion
public obediance is enforced through violence and surveillance
Cooptation
members of the public are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state and government, often with corporatism or clientelism
Personality Cult
the public is encouraged to obey the leader based on his or her extraordinary qualities and compelling ideas
Corporatism
method which authoritarian regimes attempt to solidify their control by creating a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public
Clientelism
less structured way of cooptation; state coopts members of the public by providing specific benefits or favors to a single person or small group in return for support
Rent-Seeking
process in which political leaders essentially rent out parts of the state to their patrons, who as a result control public goods that would otherwise be distributed in a non political manner
Kleptocracy
"rule by theft" those in power seek only to further fill their own pockets and drain the state of assets and resources
Personal Rule
claim that one person is alone fit to run the country, with no clear regime or roles to constrain that person's rule. state and society seen as posessions
Patrimonialism
ruler depends on a collection of supporters within the state who gain direct benefits in return for enforcing the ruler's will.
Military Rule
rule by one or more military officers, often brought to power by a coup de'etat. found in latin american and africa
Bureaucratic Authoritarianism
system in which state bureaucracy and the military share a belief that a technocratic leadership, focused on rational, objective, technical expertise, can solve the problems of the country
One-party rule
single political party monopolizes politics and other parties are banned or excluded from power
Quasi Democracies
falling somewhere between democracy and authoritarianism; may appear like established democracies but whose regimes use questionable procedures
Democracy
political power exercised either directly or indirectly through participation, competition, and liberty
Liberal Democracy
political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty. rooted in the ideology of liberalism (individual rights and freedoms)
Indirect Democracy

or
Republicanism
representative rule; emphasizes the separation of powers within a state and the representation of the public through elected officials
Rule of Law
condition in which the public and those in power respect and abide by the rules and norms of the democratic regime. democracy is thereby institutionalized
First Past the Post
(FPTP)
majority wins votes; single member districts; most common in United States, India, and the United Kingdom; results in two broad parties
Proportional Representation
(PR)
used in multi member districts;majority of democracies around the world; attempts to decrease the number of votes wasted, thus increasing the number of parties
Referendum
allowing a public vote on a particular policy issue; must be called for by the government
initiative
publicly initiated national referendum
Plebiscites
name for referenda or initiatives in which the vote is non binding for the government
Head of State
role that symbolizes and represents the people both nationally and internationally, emobdying and articulating the goals of the regime
Head of Government
deals with the everyday tasks of runnign the state, such as formulating and executing policy.
Rise of Illiberal Democracy
Countries with Centralized power have more problems with liberal democracy; a constitutional heritage is more important that democracy;