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40 Cards in this Set

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Arab leaders justification for restricting popular participation
Zakaria says that an institutional approach to this is that the post-colonial Arab leaders (historical rule by monarchs and other authoritarian regimes) are that the threat of Islamic extremism is the only alternative.
Civilization
Basis of conflict for Huntington’s arguments. Conflicts of world politics are based upon conflicts among civs (enduring cultural differences/fuel principal conflicts).
Confucian values
quiescence, Blecher acts that there is a historical lack of civil society.
Delegative Democracy
Believe free and fair elections are important to select political representatives. B/n elections, citizens do not participate in politics.
Constructive Vote of No Confidence
Ouster of chancellor, can't just oust (the Bundestag), party leaders must also name successor
Consensual Democracy
AS MANY AS POSS – diff from Majoritarian): Multiparty cabinet, balance of power, bicameral leg, federal state, rigid constitution, judicial review, proportional representation, multiparty system w/mult cleaves. LIJPHART
Diffuse Support
In Germany, opposite of Specific when talking about support for political institutions. Rooted in internalization of the values associated with institutions.
Duma
Lower chamber of Russian parliament, 5% threshold. PR and SMD elections. Duma can vote no confidence, can also lose its power, can be dismissed. Slow for measures of accountability, better than it was before. Still lets president be very powerful. Competetive elections for Duma,
Ethnic-based federalism
In USSR, led to centrifugal pressures contributing to fall of USSR>.
5% Threshold
Minimum # needed in Germany to participate, same w/Russia. Prevents fringe parties
Glasnost
Gorbachev’s reforms, openness.
Globalization
Emphasized by Huntington: increase in globalism. Networks of interdependence at muti-continental distances. Networks can be linked flows of capital, goods, people etc.
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
One of Mao’s radical campaigns. 1966-1969, forces elites to experience continual revolution.
Horizontal Accountability
Ability of state agencies legally empowered to take action vs. possible unlawful behavior by other state agents. Means: Constitutional Court, ombudsperson, impeachments, vote
Inglehart's cultural zones
Used to refute Huntington’s civilizations: divides into Protestant Europe, Confucian, So. Asian etc. Somewhat similar, not as broad as Huntington’s civs. Distinctive cultural zones independently influence democratization, correlated with democracy.
Institutional Approach
Similar to Rational Actor. Institutions provide incentives for political behavior, including behavior supportive of democracy (Grugel). Create institutions that make democracy the interest of elites and citizens. People can hold leaders accountable.
Historical Institutional Variant
Political actors are not necessarily motivated by self-interest but have their preferences shaped by their institutional environment (past and present), other factors like values. Need to build institutions that cultivate values based on history, India and colonialism.
Rational acotor
Individuals/actors are motivated by self interest, know goals and rank prefs, make similar stable decisions, utilitarian GREEN/SHAPIRO/SODARO
Institutional engineering
Linz says that parliamentary democracy is best for transitioning countries bc it cultivates the sharing of power, offers flexibility of PM loses support. In Nigeria: altering political institutions to try to overcome ethnically dominated politics. Nigeria tried this in 1979 w/the 2nd Republic.
Islamic State
State that enforces Islamic law (Sharia).
Majoritarian Democracy
(Lijphart) the MAJORITY: 1 party controls cabinet and legislature, unicameral leg. Unitary state, flexible constitution, no judicial review, plurality electoral system. 2 party system, 1 party dominant cleavage in party system.
Mejlis
Iranian parliament, evidence of democracy in Iran as well as with direct elections.
Mass line
During Anti-Jap war, needed to work and win over not all committed Communists who moved to Yan'an---style of leadership that was more open and responsive than how the Soviet Communists were
One-party system
Flaw of institutional design in USSR. Extreme concentration of power in Communist Party.
Overlapping, reinforcing cleavages
In Nigeria. Deeply culturally divided, moderately participatory, lacks civic culture. Diff Ethnic groups, diff religions, locations, diff socio-econs.
Perestroika
Gorbachev’s reforms (restructuring)
Perils of Presidentialism
Ex. In Russia according to Roeder. Appears to have a mix between Presidential and Parliamentary democracy. However, there are “super” presidential powers: Few formal or informal checks on the power of Russia’s president. Very little accountability (horizontal especially, controlled media) for Putin and his reforms.
Prebendalism
Use of state offices as instruments for personal gain as in Nigeria. Due to bad border drawing, harsh rule colonizer, divide/conquer.
Proportional representational system
Version in Germany, mixed PR/Single member simple-plurality district electoral system, %5 threshold. Not so many for fringe parties. Result=Party system w/moderate # of multiple parties
Freedom and Terrorism
According to Karatnychy, since 1999 countries that are “not free” have generated the bulk of terrorists and generated terrorists who carry out the most lethal attacks. Implies: to win war on terror, democratic reform should be promoted. Reform should be indigenously initiated.
Single-member district electoral system
Eliminated by Putin as part of institutional reforms of the USSR.
Specific support
In Germany, rooted in fact that institutions perform well, benefit the citizen.
Super-presidential system
Roeder: Russia’s democratic institutions are poorly designed because on paper, there are few “super” presidential powers, few formal or informal checks of power on Russia’s president.
Survival values
Argued by Inglehart as a cultural dimension that influences receptiveness to democracy. (Along with self-expression)
Curse of oil wealth
Shown in Iran, partial modernization. Strengthens the political economy argument. Curse of oil wealthstunted modernization acc. To Zakaraia. Easy to concentrate wealth in the hands of a few, target for struggle. Also seen in Russia (could this help modernization) and Nigeria.
Thick rationality
Assumes that individuals always value money power, office perks.
Valayat-e faqih
Power base in Iran: doctrine that places 1 ulama at the head of the political and religious system.
Vertical Accountablilty (O'Donnell)
Ability of citizens to hold authorities accountable via elections, free media, active civil society. Weak in Russia b/c elections are not fair, political parties are weak and there are restrictions on media and civil society.
Beer's Modernization (Pol Econ)
Econ development-->socl mobilzation--> political development. Economic moderniztion brings about social change, which in turn brings about pressure for political change
Almond and Verba's Political Culture
Civic Cultuer: Mix of parochial, subject, and participatory political culture. Subcultures based on culture, class, role may exist but are minor. Type of political culture necess. to support democratization.