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KEY WORDS OF GOV AND CITIZENSHIPS 32 KEY WORKS
Key Words:
Rights
Responsibilities
Declaration Of Independence
U.S. Constitution
Texas Constitution
Branches of Government
Constitutional Governments
Totalitarian Governments
TEH FIRST6OF GOVERMENT AND CITIZENSHIP DESCRIPTOR HIGHLIGHTS
• Understands the purpose of rules and laws.
• Analyzes the beliefs and principles reflected in the
Constitution and the structures and functions of
the U.S. and Texas governments.
• Demonstrates knowledge of types of
governments.
• Understands the impact of landmark Supreme
Court decisions.
• Demonstrates knowledge of the impact of
Constitutional Amendments.
• Understands components of the democratic
RULE, RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITYS
LAWS, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF GOVERENMENT POLITCS,CITIZENSHIP
RESPONSIBIITES OF CITIZEN
Civic Responsibilities
Our government and Constitution provides
Americans with many freedoms that are only
dreams in other countries. In exchange for these
freedoms, we, as citizens are expected to contribute
to our system. Our civic responsibilities
include serving of juries, voting, becoming
informed on issues, and volunteering to help, AND HELPING LESS FORTUNATE
COMMUNITY SERVICE
HELP THOSE IN NEED IN OUR SOCIETY, AND VOLUNTEER PEOPLE AND ANIMALS
f) Peaceful conflict Resolution-4 points Well learning about citizenship
know key concepts of conflict
know about conflict
f) Peaceful conflict Resolution-4 points Well learning about citizenship-positve methods for ?
postive methods for conflict resolution
positive methods
f) Peaceful conflict Resolution-4 points Well learning about citizenship
identify the negative resluts of solving conflict by violance
negative results of violance
f) Peaceful conflict Resolution-4 points Well learning about citizenship
9 principles of problem solving techniques such as
empathy
approprtiate assertiveness
shifting attitudes and issues to create a win-win situation
option developmetnet and brainstorming for solutions
negotiation
aPRErbitration
mediation
many problem solving techniques
2) Rights of citizenships-the bill of rights, ratified on december 15, 1971, is a set of ten amendments to the constitution that outline the rights of the US citizens>here are the 6 major ones
**FREEDOM Of RELIGION
FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY
TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS
FREEDOM OF SPEECH
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS
PROCTECTION FOR THOSE ACCUSED OF CRIMES
6 MAJOR FREEDOMS
b) DESCRIBE THE DEMOCRACY PROCESS
The principles of democracy emphasize the importance of the individual in the context of government and, today, are a major influence around the world. Though the term democracy is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to other groups and organizations.

In contemporary world politics, democracy has become a significant concept, with most nations in the world claiming to adhere to the broad principles of democracy. However, there is significant diversity among nations describing themselves as democratic in the modern world, making democracy increasingly difficult to define; for instance, the North Korean constitution describes North Korea as a democratic state,[2] but some commentators in Western natiOFons have described it as a totalitarian dictatorship
DESCRIBE THE DEMOCRACY PROCESS
DES FOUNDED ON PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL EQUALITY AND RESPECT FOR INDIVIDALS AND COMMUNITY, AND IS TYPICALLY GOVERENED BY MAJORITY RULE, A SYSTEM IN WHICH GROUP DECISIONS ARE MADE BY THE VOTE OF THE MAJORITY OF THE GROUPS MEMBERS
DESCRIBE THE DEMOCRACY PROCESS-3 MAJOR COMPONENTS
**VOLUNTARY INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPATION
**EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
**EXPRESSION OF DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW
THE US GOVERNMENT
bRANCHES OF GOVERMENT-THE PRESIDENT, PREZ STAFF, EXECUTIVE AGENCIES, AND CABINET DEPARTMENTS WHAT PART IS THIS?
The President of the United States serves for four
years. In the 1940s a Constitutional Amendment
was passed that limited a president to two terms.
The President has two major Constitutional “jobs.”
1. The first is to either approve legislation
from Congress or to veto it. If the
4. Government and Citizenship, cont’d.
Continued, President vetoes a law, Congress can override
the veto.
2. The second job of the President is the “execute”
the laws. The President does this
through his Cabinet. His Cabinet includes
the Secretary of State, Agriculture,
Treasurer, and Veterans Affairs. Each
Secretary helps the President carry out or
execute a law. For example, if Congress
passes a law dealing with agriculture, the
Department of Agriculture, under the control
of the Secretary of Agriculture, will be
in charge of putting the law into effect.
THE SUPREME COURT
THE PRESIDENT
THE PRESIDENT, PREZ STAFF, EXECUTIVE AGENCIES, AND CABINET DEPARTMENTS
THE US GOVERNMENT
bRANCHES OF GOVERMENT-THE SENATE AND HOUSE-INVOLES THE HOUSE AND SENATE?
Our Legislative Branch is bicameral. This simply
means that there are two “houses” – the House of
Representatives and the Senate. Both have to
approve a law before it can be sent to the
President. Most work in Congress is done
through committees who conduct hearings and
write legislation that is then submitted to the
whole Congress.
The House of Representatives is composed of 435
members. Every 10 years through the Census,
the seats of the House are reapportioned meaning
that the states with more people get more seats in
the House. Congressmen serve for two years.
The Senate is made up of 100 members. Each state
elects two senators. Senators serve for six years.
SENATE,
HOUSE OR CONGRESS
THE US GOVERNMENT
bRANCHES OF GOVERMENT-THE SUPREME COURT
The Supreme Court heads the Judicial Branch.
There are not any detailed requirements for the
Supreme Court in the Constitution; rather, the
duties were determined in the first session of
Congress. The Supreme Court is made up on
nine members who are appointed by the
President, approved by the Senate, and serve for
life. The philosophy behind having one branch
serve for life was that they would also do what
was “right” rather than what was “popular.”
The Supreme Court hears cases that are appealed
from lower courts. Although thousands of cases
are appealed each year, the Supreme Court actually
hears very few cases. Those cases that are
decided by the Supreme Court set precedent and
all legal decisions throughout the United States
must comply with decisions of the Court.
TEH SUPREME COURT
THE CHECKS AND BALANCES
e. Checks and Balances – each branch of government
checks to see that the other
branches are not getting out of line
PART OF THE US CONSTIUTION
POPULAR VOTE
THE RESULT OF THE VOTES MADE BY THE ELIGIBLE VOTERS
PART OF THE US CONST
THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE
An electoral college is a set of electors, who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office.
Often these electors represent a different organization or entity with each organization or entity by a particular number of electors or with votes weighted in a particular way.

Many times, though, the electors are simply important persons whose wisdom, it is hoped, would provide a better choice than a larger body.

The system can ignore the wishes of a general membership whose thinking may not be considered.

When applied on a national scale, such as the election of a country's leader, the popular vote can on occasion run counter to the electoral college's vote, and for this reason there are some who feel that the system is a distortion of true democracy in a democratic society.
TO BECOME PRESIDENT AN ELECCT THAT CHOOSES A POLITICAL PARTY'S CANDIIDATE FOR OFFICE
THE ELECTION PRIMARY
where the canidates choose teh political party's canidate
Who is with organized group with commen goals and values
a political party
key terms
amend
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
wher congress can amend the constitution
What are the articles of Confederation
commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. The final draft was written in summer 1777 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777 in York, Pennsylvania after a year of debate. In practice it served as the de facto system of government used by the Congress ("the United States in Congress assembled") until it became de jure by final ratification on March 1, 1781. At that point Congress became the Congress of the Confederation. The Articles set the rules for operations of the "United States" confederation. The confederation was capable of making war, negotiating diplomatic agreements, and resolving issues regarding the western territories; it could print money and borrow inside and outside the US.

One criticism by those who favored a more powerful central state was that it lacked taxing authority; the federal government had to request funds from the states. A second concern was its one-state, one-vote plank. The larger states were expected to contribute more but had only one vote, though they could remedy this by dividing into smaller states. The Articles created a mutual defense confederation designed to manage the American Revolutionary War. The Articles were replaced by the United States Constitution on June 21, 1788
adapted in 1871, later in 1789
consistiuent
a person who is represented by an election official
Constitution
a document which establishes the basic priciples of goverment
delegate
a person who acts or represents another
The Fredrailism
Power = The national gov/ The state goverment
the constitution made a stronger national govement. It divided power between the national goverment and the state goverment
National
A citizen of a nation who is entilted to protection
ratification
the states' approval of the constitution or an amendment to the constitution
veto
the president has the power to veto
state goverment-area of power
public health and safety
Trade within the stage
ratify amendments
power of the goverment
National Govenment Areas of Power
relations with other countries
declare war
foreign and interstate trade
coin money
shared powers of areas and power
Make and enforce laws
taxing citizens
Borrow money
make, enforce, tax, borrow
Texans live under three goverments
the federal
the texas gov
their local goverment
(city, citizens)
Texas gov oontinued
govermentJust like most state governments, Texas’ parallels
that of the United States federal government.
The Texas Constitution that governs us now was
written in 1876, but the people of Texas have
chosen to ratify 432 proposed Constitutional
amendments (as of February, 2005).
The government of Texas is composed of three
branches of government – legislative, executive,
and judicial.
The legislative branch is made up of a Senate (31
members serve four years) and the House of
Representatives (150 members serve two years).
The Texas Legislature meets for 140 days in odd
numbered years. The Governor can call special
sessions when they are deemed necessary. The
job of the Legislature is to pass legislation – primarily
the budget, which is always a two-year
budget, and it must be a balanced budget. Texas
is forbidden from going into debt.
The Lieutenant Governor is the presiding official
in the Texas Senate and the Speaker of the House
presides over the House. They get to decide
which legislation will be considered and this
power actually makes them more powerful than
any other state official – including the Governor.
The Executive Branch is composed of the
Governor of Texas, Lieutenant Governor,
Secretary of State, Comptroller of Public
Accounts, Commissioner of the General Land
Office, and Attorney General. When the
Constitution of 1876 was written a primary goal
was to limit the power of Texas government officials.
With different executive powers being
assigned to different people in the Executive
4. Government and Citizenship, cont’d.
Continued
The Texas Constitution has what 3 branches of power
Legislative, judicial, and executive
Instead of President, The state of Texas elects?
A Governer
Declarations of indpendence
written by thomas jefferson
7-4-76
provided a list of grievence against english goverment
Oulines the basics of life, liberty and pursuit of happines
the us constitiution=HAS PREAMBLE-INTRO, THE 7 ARTICLES WHICH IS THE MAIN BODY, AND AMENDMENTS-ADDITIONS TO THE CONSTITUTION
G. Beliefs and Principles in the U.S. Constitution
Constitutional Principals – our constitution is
based upon several principals.
a. Republicanism – where people elect others
to represent them
b. Popular Sovereignty – power comes from
the people
c. Limited Government – governmental
power is not absolute
d. Federalism – power is shared by states governments
and federal government
e. Checks and Balances – each branch of government
checks to see that the other
branches are not getting out of line
f. Separation of Powers – each branch of government
has its own duties
g. Individual Rights – people have civil liberties
and civil rights
wAS RATIFIED ON 7/21/2007
sUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION-THE PREAMBLE
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
sUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION-FIRST 3 ARTICLES OF THE CONSTIT.
Section 1 - The Legislature
Section 2 - The House
Section 3 - The Senate
ESTABLISHS WHAT,L, H, SENATE
SUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION-ARTICLE 4
Elections, Meetings

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of Chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall (be on the first Monday in December,) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 20th Amendment, section 2.) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
SUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION-
ARTICLE 5
HOW TO AMEND OR ADD TO THE CONSTITUTION
SUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION-
ARTICLE 6-CONST. IS SUMPREME RULE OF LAW,Debts, Supremacy, Oaths
All Debts contracted
Debts, Supremacy, Oaths
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.


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SUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION-
THE RATIFICATION
Article. VII. - Ratification Documents
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
BILL OF RIGHTS
FIRST 10 AMENDMENTS
ADDED IN 1791
OUTLINES AND PROTECTS THE RIGHTS OF PEOPLE
BILL OF RIGHTS-THE FIRST 5 AMENDMENTS
BILL OF RIGHTS-
Amendment 1 - Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.


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Amendment 2 - Right to Bear Arms. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.


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Amendment 3 - Quartering of Soldiers. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.


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Amendment 4 - Search and Seizure. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


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Amendment 5 - Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. Ratified 12/15/1791.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
BILL OF RIGHTS-THE NEXT 5 AMENDMENTS
Amendment 6 - Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.


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Amendment 7 - Trial by Jury in Civil Cases. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.


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Amendment 8 - Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Ratified 12/15/1791.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


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Amendment 9 - Construction of Constitution. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.



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Amendment 10 - Powers of the States and People. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
BILL OF RIGHTS-AMENDMENTS 11-15
Amendment 11 - Judicial Limits. Ratified 2/7/1795. Note History

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.


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Amendment 12 - Choosing the President, Vice-President. Ratified 6/15/1804. Note History The Electoral College

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.


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Amendment 13 - Slavery Abolished. Ratified 12/6/1865. History

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. Ratified 7/9/1868. Note History

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


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Amendment 15 - Race No Bar to Vote. Ratified 2/3/1870. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
BILL OF RIGHTS 16-20
Amendment 16 - Status of Income Tax Clarified. Ratified 2/3/1913. Note History

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.


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Amendment 17 - Senators Elected by Popular Vote. Ratified 4/8/1913. History

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


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Amendment 18 - Liquor Abolished. Ratified 1/16/1919. Repealed by Amendment 21, 12/5/1933. History

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


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Amendment 19 - Women's Suffrage. Ratified 8/18/1920. History

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 20 - Presidential, Congressional Terms. Ratified 1/23/1933. History

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.
BILL OF RIGHTS-AMENDMENTS 21-25
Amendment 21 - Amendment 18 Repealed. Ratified 12/5/1933. History

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


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Amendment 22 - Presidential Term Limits. Ratified 2/27/1951. History

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.


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Amendment 23 - Presidential Vote for District of Columbia. Ratified 3/29/1961. History

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 24 - Poll Tax Barred. Ratified 1/23/1964. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 25 - Presidential Disability and Succession. Ratified 2/10/1967. Note History

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
BILL OF RIGHTS AMENDMENTS 26-27
Amendment 26 - Voting Age Set to 18 Years. Ratified 7/1/1971. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 27 - Limiting Congressional Pay Increases. Ratified 5/7/1992. History

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
TEXAS DECLARATION OF INDENDENCE
The Unanimous
Declaration of Independence
made by the
Delegates of the People of Texas
in General Convention
at the town of Washington
on the 2nd day of March 1836.
PROVIDES A LIST OF GRIEVANCES AGAINST THE MEXICAN
fREEDOM OF THE COUNTRY OF MEXICO
THE TEXAS CONSTITIUTION-IMPORTANT DATES EIGHT DATES
1824- CONSTIT. OF THE REPUBLIC OF MEX
1827-MEX. STATE OF TEX HAS CONST
1836-CONSTIT O FREPUBLIC OF TEXAS
1845-TEX US STATE GETS CONST
1861-GOVEREND BY THE CONST. OF CONFEDRATE STATES OF AMERICA
1866-TEX IN CIVIL WAR
1869-TEX GIVES BLACKS VOTE RIGHTS
1876-CURRENT STATE CONSTITUTION RATIFIED
SUMMARY OF THE STATE OF TEXAS
PREAMBLE, ARTICLE 1-BILL OF RIGHTS-FREEDOM AND SOVEREGNTY OF STATE, EQUALITY UNDER THE AW, FREEDOM OF WORSHIP, FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND PRESS, RIGHT OF TRIAL BY JURY, , RIGHT TO KEEP AND BAIR ARMS, RIGHT OF ASSEMBLY
OTHER ARTICLES OF THE TX CONSTITUTION
Article 2: "The Powers of Government"
Provides for the separation of the powers of the government.


[edit] Article 3: "Legislative Department"
Article 3 vests the legislative power of the state in the "Legislature of the State of Texas", and establishes that the legislature consists of the state Senate and House of Representatives. It also lists the qualifications required of senators and representatives and regulates the details of the legislative process. Finally, the article contains many substantive limitations on the power of the legislature and a large number of exceptions to those limitations. In particular, Section 49 limits the power of the legislature to incur debt, while numerous other sections following Section 49 permit the legislature to issue bonds for specific purposes.

As with the United States Constitution, either house may originate bills (Section 31), but bills to raise revenue must originate in the House of Representatives (Section 33).

In addition, Section 49a requires the Comptroller of Public Accounts to certify the amount of available cash on hand and anticipated revenues for the next biennium; no appropriation may exceed this amount (except in cases of emergency and then only with a 4/5ths vote of both chambers), and the Comptroller is permitted to reject and return to the Legislature any appropriation in violation of this requirement.


[edit] Article 4: "Executive Department"
Describes the powers and duties of the governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, comptroller of public accounts, commissioner of the general land office, and attorney general. With the exception of the secretary of state the above officials are directly elected; the lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor (not as a team).

Under section 16 of this article, the Lieutenant-Governor automatically assumes the power of Governor if and when the Governor travels outside of the state of Texas, for whatever reason.


[edit] Article 5: "Judicial Department"
Describes the composition, powers, and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, the Court of Criminal Appeals, the Court of Appeals, the District, County, and Commissioners Courts, and the Justice of the Peace Courts. See Texas judicial system for comments regarding the complicated structure of the Texas court system.


[edit] Article 6: "Suffrage"
Denies voting rights to minors, felons, and people who are deemed mentally incompentent by a court (though the Legislature may make exceptions in the latter two cases). Describes rules for elections.


[edit] Article 7: "Education"
Establishes provisions for public schools, asylums, and universities. ". . . it shall be DUTY OF THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE to establish and make suitable provision for the support and maintenance of an efficient system of public free schools" (Article 7, Texas Constitution). This issue has surfaced in recent lawsuits involving the State's funding of education and restrictions it has placed on local school districts. This Article also discusses the creation and maintenance of the Permanent University Fund and mandates the establishment of a "university of the first class" (the University of Texas) as well as an agricultural and mechanical university (Texas A&M University).


[edit] Article 8: "Taxation and Revenue"
Article 8 places various restrictions on the ability of the Legislature and local governments to impose taxes. Most of these restriction concern local property taxes (Section 1-e prohibits statewide property taxes).

Texas does not have a personal income tax. Section 24 of the article, added by an amendment adopted in 1993, restricts the ability of the Legislature to impose such a tax. Under the section, a law imposing a personal income tax must be ratified in a state-wide referendum to take effect; any further change in the tax must also be ratified to take effect, if it would increase the "collective liability" of all persons subject to the tax. The proceeds from the tax must first be used reduce local school property taxes, with any remainder being used for the support of education.

No such restriction exists on imposition of a corporate income tax or similar tax; in May 2006 the Legislature replaced the existing franchise tax with a gross receipts tax.


[edit] Article 9: "Counties"
Provides rules for the creation of counties and determining the location of county seats. It also includes several provisions regarding the creation of county-wide hospital districts in specified counties, as well as other miscellaneous provisions regarding airports and mental health.


[edit] Article 10: "Rail Roads"
Contains a single section declaring that railroads are considered "public highways" and railroad carriers "common carriers". (This section may not have much force of law, as railroad operations, even those where a railroad physically exists in only one state, are governed by the Surface Transportation Board, a federal agency.) Eight other sections were repealed in 1969.


[edit] Article 11: "Municipal Corporations"
Recognizes counties as legal political subunits of the State, grants certain powers to cities and counties, empowers the legislature to form school districts.


[edit] Article 12: "Private Corporations"
Article 12 contains two sections directing the legislature to enact general laws for the creation of private corporations and prohibiting the creation of private corporations by special law. Four other sections were repealed in 1969 and a fifth section in 1993.


[edit] Article 13: "Spanish and Mexican Land Titles"
Established provisions for Spanish and Mexican land titles; this article was repealed in its entirety in 1969.


[edit] Article 14: "Public Lands and Land Office"
Article 14 contains a single section establishing the General Land Office and the office of commissioner of the General Land Office. Six other sections were repealed in 1969.


[edit] Article 15: "Impeachment"
Describes the process of impeachment and lists grounds on which to impeach judges. The House of Representatives is granted the power of impeachment.


[edit] Article 16: "General Provisions"
Contains miscellaneous provisions, including limits on interest rates, civil penalties for murder, and the punishment for bribery.

Section 15 discusses that Texas is a community property state.

Section 28 prohibits garnishment of wages, except for spousal maintenance and child support payments (however, this does not limit Federal garnishment for items such as student loan payments or income taxes).

Section 37 provides for the constitutional protection of the mechanic's lien.

Although Texas is a right-to-work state, such protections are governed by law; Texas does not have a constitutional protection for right-to-work.


[edit] Article 17: "Mode of amending the Constitution of this State"
Article 17 consists of a single section that prescribes the procedure for amending the constitution. The legislature, by a two-thirds vote of the membership of each house, may propose amendments in either regular or special session. Amendments in a special session must relate to one of the purposes for which the governor has called the session. An amendment becomes part of the constitution when approved by a majority of the persons voting in a statewide election. The governor has no role in this process (s/he neither approves nor vetoes them). The constitution does not provide for amendment by initiative or any other means of amendment; only the Legislature may propose them.

The section also prescribes specific details for notifying the public of elections to approve amendment. It requires that the legislature publish a notice in officially approved newspapers that briefly summarizes each amendment and shows how each amendment will be described on the ballot. It also requires that the full text of each amendment be posted at each county courthouse, at least 50 days (but no sooner than 60 days) before the election.


[edit]
process for changing the constitution-what are the two ways?
congressional amendment-begins in congress as a proposal that requires 2/3 of the vote (of a quo rum) in a house
2)national convention-the legistaters of 2/3 of the states may ask Congress to call a national convention to discuss and draft amendments
define Ratification
All amendments must have the approval of the legislatures the individual states before becoming part of the costitution
What is a dictatorship of society
That is a single ruler with total control. exp. queens and kings
advantages of dictorship
advantages: people may be united by their loyality to the leader since there is no competition for the effection of the people
-In of crisis, a dictator quickly can take action because there is no time lost on debate
and disadvantages of dictorship
-civil rights can be abused
-people have little or no individual liberty
-needs of the people may be neglected in favor of the dictator's personal desires and intrest
define oligarchy
Oligarchy (Greek Ὀλιγαρχία, Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers
what are the advantages of oligarchy
advantnges
civil rights can be -
people have little no individual liberty
-needs of people may be neglected in favor of the groups persoanl desiarrowres and intrests
Decisison making has a narrow base and may be flawed
DIRECT DEMOCRACY
A GOVERMENT IN WHICH ALL CITIZENS HAVE EQUAL POWER IN DECISION MAKING
DIRECT DEMOCRACY ADVANTAGES
CITIZENS HAVE EQ UAL POWER IN DECISION MAKING
-SINCE ALL CITIZENS HAVE A SAY IN DECISIONS, THERE IS BROAD SUPPORT AND LOYALITY

CIVIL RIGHTS ARE PROTECTED
DIRECT DEMOCRACY DISADVANTAGES
THE ABILITY TO GATER ALL CITIZENS INTO A SINGLE LOCATION IS NECESSARY (FOR DEBATE AND DISCUSSION) A CUMBERSOME AND TIME CONSUMING PROCESS THAT IS DIFFICULT AND IMPRACTICAL
WHAT IS A REPRESENTIVE DEMOCRACY?
Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the people's representatives. The representatives form an independent ruling body (for an election period) charged with the responsibility of acting in the people's interest, but not as their proxy representatives—i.e., not necessarily always according to their wishes, but with enough authority to exercise swift and resolute initiative in the face of changing circumstances. It is often contrasted with direct democracy, where representatives are absent or are limited in power as proxy representatives.
ADVANTAGES OF REPRESENTIVE DEMOCRACY
Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the people's representatives. The representatives form an independent ruling body (for an election period) charged with the responsibility of acting in the people's interest, but not as their proxy representatives—i.e., not necessarily always according to their wishes, but with enough authority to exercise swift and resolute initiative in the face of changing circumstances. It is often contrasted with direct democracy, where representatives are absent or are limited in power as proxy representatives.
DISADVANTAGES OF REPRESENTIVE DEMOCRACY
LACK MAY ALLOW SPECIAL OF CIVIL INVOLVMENT INTEREST GROUPS TO DONATE DECISIONS

REPS MAY NOT AGREE WITH THOSE THEY REPRESENT

DECISION MAKING CCAN BE TIME CONSUMMING A REPRESENTIVES STRUGGLE TO PLEASE A DIVERSITY OF PEOPLE
CONSTITUTIONAL GOVENMENT
A constitution is a system, often codified as a written document, that establishes the rules and principles that govern an organization or political entity. In the case of countries, this term refers specifically to a national constitution defining the fundamental political principles, and establishing the structure, procedures, powers and duties, of a government. Most national constitutions also guarantee certain rights to the people. Historically, before the evolution of modern-style, codified national constitutions, the term constitution could be applied to any important law that governed the functioning of a government.

Constitutions are found in many organizations. They are found extensively in government, at supranational (e.g. European Union), national (e.g. United States Constitution), and sub-national or provincial (e.g. Constitution of Maryland) levels. They are found in many political groups, such as political parties, pressure groups, and trade unions. Non-political entities may also have constitutions, for example, companies and voluntary organizations.
TOTALITARIAN GOVERMENT
is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior.

The most influential scholars of totalitarianism have each described totalitarianism in a slightly different way. Common to all definitions is the attempt to mobilize entire populations in support of the official state ideology, and the intolerance of activities which are not directed towards the goals of the state, entailing repression or state control of business, labour unions, churches or political parties. Totalitarian regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of secret police, propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, personality cult, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, single-party state, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of terror tactics.

Critics of the concept say that the term lacks explanatory power. They argue that governments which may be classified as totalitarian often lack characteristics said to be associated with the term. They may not be as monolithic as they appear from the outside, if they incorporate several groups, such as the army, political leaders, industrialists, which compete for power and influence. In this sense, these regimes may exhibit pluralism through the involvement of several groups in the political process.[1]
UNITED STATES SYMBOLS
US CAP, WHITE HOUSE, S COURT
STATUES AND SYMPOLS FORGOTTEN
KOREAN WAR MEMOR.
TOMB OF THE UNKNOW AND OTHERS
WHAT IS ARE SOME OF THE SYMBOLS
NATIONAL FLOWER-ROSE
GEAT SEAL,
FIGRURES OF JUSTICE AND A FEW OTHERS
A COUPLE OF TEH SONGS THAT REPRESENT EUROPE
TAPS, OATH OF OFFICE
DEFINE THE TEXAS FLAG
The state flag consists of a rectangle with a width to length ratio of two to three containing: (1) a blue vertical stripe one-third the entire length of the flag wide, and two equal horizontal stripes, the upper stripe white, the lower red, each two-thirds the entire length of the flag long; and (2) a white, regular five-pointed star in the center of the blue stripe, oriented so that one point faces upward, and of such a size that the diameter of a circle passing through the five points of the star is equal to three-fourths the width of the blue stripe."

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DEFINE THE TEXAS SONG
"TEXAS OUR TEXAS"- BY MARSH AND WRIGHT
STATE SYMBOLS
The Texas State Bird: Mockingbird The Texas State Flower: Bluebonnet
The Texas State Tree: Pecan
STATE DISH: CHILI
GEMSTONE: TOPAZ
STONE: PETERIFIED PALMWOOD
SMALL ANIMAL; ARMADILLO
MOTO: FRIENDSHIP
INGERATING CONCEPTS WITH gov. citizenship US HISTORY, WORLD HISTORY, TEX HISTORY, GOV./CIVICS/ POLI SCI, GEOGRAPHY, ECON, TECHONOLGY TYPES OF INTEGRATING CONC
INGERATING CONCEPTS WITH gov. citizenship US HISTORY, WORLD HISTORY, TEX HISTORY, GOV./CIVICS/ POLI SCI, GEOGRAPHY, ECON, TECHONOLGY TYPES OF INTEGRATING CONC
HOt HIGH ORDER THING QUESTIONS, WHERE YOU INTERPET INFORMATION FROM WRIT PASSAGES, MAPS, CHARTS, GRAPHS, TABLES, CARTOONS, DIAGRAMS, AND PHOTOGRAPHS
HOt HIGH ORDER THING QUESTIONS, WHERE YOU INTERPET INFORMATION FROM WRIT PASSAGES, MAPS, CHARTS, GRAPHS, TABLES, CARTOONS, DIAGRAMS, AND PHOTOGRAPHS
GEOGRAPY RESEARCH EVALUATION COMMUNICATION and ANALYZING include what
GEOGRAPY RESEARCH EVALUATION COMMUNICATION and ANALYZING DATA-TYPES TEXTBOOKS, SCHOLARLY BOOKS, AND ARTICLES, AUTOGRAPHIES, EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS, LETTERS, DIARIES, AND JOURNALS, NEWS REPORTS
OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS, HISTORICAL SITES AND ARTIFACTS AND WORKS OF ART
Primaray and secondary sources in gov and citizenship
PRIMARY SOURCES OF STUDYING gOVERMENT AND CITIZENSHIPS RECORDS AND FIRST HAND ACCOUNTS OF HISTORICAL EVENTS, Edit
SECOND SOURCES OF STUDING HISTORY RETELLINGS, DESCRIPTIONS, AND EXPLANATIONS CREATED AFTER THE EVENT, AND EXPLANATIONS DREATIED AFTER THE EVENT USUALLY BASED ON PRIMARY SOURCES primary
secondary Edit
gov/cit feildwork
distribute questionaire
take photographs
record obeservations
interview citizens