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### 45 Cards in this Set

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 The study of the distribution of health and illness within the population and the factors that determine the population's health status Epidemiogy How Nurses Use Epidemiology: Who used basic epidemiology to measure rates of illness per 1000 soldiers during the Crimean War. F. Nightingale How Nurses Use Epidemiology: F. Nightingale looked at the relationship between the __________ and the recovery of the soldiers during the Crimean War. conditions of the environment How Nurses Use Epidemiology: Nurses are involved in the _____ and _____ of disease trends surveillance; monitoring What are the 6 measures of Morbidity and Mortality? 1. Risk 2. Rate 3. Incidence rate 4. Prevalence rate 5. Attack rate 6. Case fatality rate Definition: The probability that a given individual will develop a specific condition. Risk Definition: The probability of some event or outcome within a specified period. Risk Definition: A measure of frequency of a health event in a defined population during a specified period. Rate Definition: Statistical measures that indicate the extent of health problems in a group. Rates of Occurrence _____ allow for comparisons between groups of different sizes with respect to the extent of a particular condition. Rates of Occurrence Rates of Occurrence is calculated by dividing ___________ by the __________ and multiplying by __________. the number of instances of an event during a specified period; population at risk for that event; a predetermined number as a constant (usually 1,000) Definition: The frequency or rate of new casess of an outcome in a population. Incidence rate __________ provides an estimate of the risk of disease in that population over a period of observation. Incidence rate Definition: A measure of existing disease in a population at a given time. Prevalence proportion (rate) Definition: A type of incidence rate defined as the proportion of persons exposed to an agent who develop the disease, usually for a limited time in a specific population. Attack rate Definition: Proportion of persons diagnosed with a specific disorder who die within a specified time. Case fatality rate What are the two elements of risk? 1. Susceptibility 2. Exposure potential Definition: The ability to be affected by factors contributing to a particular health condition. Susceptibility Definition: The likelihood of exposure to factors that contribute to a particular condition. Exposure potential What are the two Major Rates of Occurrence? 1. Mortality rates 2. Morbidity rates Definition: The ratio of the number of deaths in various categories to the size of a given population Mortality rates Definition: The ratio of the number of cases of a condition to a given population. Morbidity rates What are the two types of morbidity rates? 1. Incidence 2. Prevalence Definition: The rate of new cases of a condition diagnosed in a population in a given period of time. Incidence Definition: The total number of persons with a condition present in the population at a given point in time. Prevalence Definition: The concept that one event is the result of another event. Causality Definition: Using statistics to determine if a relationship exists between two or more factors or event. Causality What are the criterias for causality? 1. Consistency 2. Strength of association 3. Specificity 4. Temporal relationship 5. Coherence Criterias for causality: ________ means that the association is consistent and always occurs in the same direction Consistency Criterias for causality: ________ means that the greater the correlation, the greater the possibility of causation. Strength of association Criterias for causality: __________ means that the supposed cause always results in the same effect. Specificity Criterias for causality: __________ means that the supposed cause always occurs before the supposed effect. Temporal relationship Criterias for causality: __________ means that the supposition that one event causes another is coherent with other existing knowledge. Coherence Definition: A framework for collecting and organizing epidemiologic data. Epidemiologic Models What are the two main Epidemiologic Models? 1. The epidemiologic triad 2. The web of causation What are the three elements of epidemiologic triad? 1. Host 2. Agent 3. Enviroment Preexposure stage is Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Level of Prevention? Primary Level of Prevention Preclinical stage is Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Level of Prevention? Primary Level of Prevention Clinical stage is Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Level of Prevention? Secondary Level of Prevention Resolution stage is Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Level of Prevention? Tertiary Level of Prevention What are the five characteristics of a successful screening program? 1. Valid (accurate) 2. Reliable (precise) 3. Capable of large group administration 4. Innocuous 5. High yield Characteristics of a successful screening program: _____ means that the screening has a high probability of correct classification of person tested. Valid (accurate) Characteristics of a successful screening program: _____ means that result of the screening are consistant from place to place, time to time, and person to person. Reliable (precise) Characteristics of a successful screening program: _____ means that the screening has few if any side effects, and the test is minimally invasive. Innocuous Characteristics of a successful screening program: _____ means that the screening us able to detect enough new cases to warrent the effort and expense (yield defined as amount of previously unrecognized disease that is diagnosed and treated as a result of screening). High yield