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45 Cards in this Set

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The study of the distribution of health and illness within the population and the factors that determine the population's health status
Epidemiogy
How Nurses Use Epidemiology:
Who used basic epidemiology to measure rates of illness per 1000 soldiers during the Crimean War.
F. Nightingale
How Nurses Use Epidemiology:
F. Nightingale looked at the relationship between the __________ and the recovery of the soldiers during the Crimean War.
conditions of the environment
How Nurses Use Epidemiology:
Nurses are involved in the _____ and _____ of disease trends
surveillance; monitoring
What are the 6 measures of Morbidity and Mortality?
1. Risk
2. Rate
3. Incidence rate
4. Prevalence rate
5. Attack rate
6. Case fatality rate
Definition:
The probability that a given individual will develop a specific condition.
Risk
Definition:
The probability of some event or outcome within a specified period.
Risk
Definition:
A measure of frequency of a health event in a defined population during a specified period.
Rate
Definition:
Statistical measures that indicate the extent of health problems in a group.
Rates of Occurrence
_____ allow for comparisons between groups of different sizes with respect to the extent of a particular condition.
Rates of Occurrence
Rates of Occurrence is calculated by dividing ___________ by the __________ and multiplying by __________.
the number of instances of an event during a specified period;
population at risk for that event;
a predetermined number as a constant (usually 1,000)
Definition:
The frequency or rate of new casess of an outcome in a population.
Incidence rate
__________ provides an estimate of the risk of disease in that population over a period of observation.
Incidence rate
Definition:
A measure of existing disease in a population at a given time.
Prevalence proportion (rate)
Definition:
A type of incidence rate defined as the proportion of persons exposed to an agent who develop the disease, usually for a limited time in a specific population.
Attack rate
Definition:
Proportion of persons diagnosed with a specific disorder who die within a specified time.
Case fatality rate
What are the two elements of risk?
1. Susceptibility
2. Exposure potential
Definition:
The ability to be affected by factors contributing to a particular health condition.
Susceptibility
Definition:
The likelihood of exposure to factors that contribute to a particular condition.
Exposure potential
What are the two Major Rates of Occurrence?
1. Mortality rates
2. Morbidity rates
Definition:
The ratio of the number of deaths in various categories to the size of a given population
Mortality rates
Definition:
The ratio of the number of cases of a condition to a given population.
Morbidity rates
What are the two types of morbidity rates?
1. Incidence
2. Prevalence
Definition:
The rate of new cases of a condition diagnosed in a population in a given period of time.
Incidence
Definition:
The total number of persons with a condition present in the population at a given point in time.
Prevalence
Definition:
The concept that one event is the result of another event.
Causality
Definition:
Using statistics to determine if a relationship exists between two or more factors or event.
Causality
What are the criterias for causality?
1. Consistency
2. Strength of association
3. Specificity
4. Temporal relationship
5. Coherence
Criterias for causality:
________ means that the association is consistent and always occurs in the same direction
Consistency
Criterias for causality:
________ means that the greater the correlation, the greater the possibility of causation.
Strength of association
Criterias for causality:
__________ means that the supposed cause always results in the same effect.
Specificity
Criterias for causality:
__________ means that the supposed cause always occurs before the supposed effect.
Temporal relationship
Criterias for causality:
__________ means that the supposition that one event causes another is coherent with other existing knowledge.
Coherence
Definition:
A framework for collecting and organizing epidemiologic data.
Epidemiologic Models
What are the two main Epidemiologic Models?
1. The epidemiologic triad
2. The web of causation
What are the three elements of epidemiologic triad?
1. Host
2. Agent
3. Enviroment
Preexposure stage is
Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Level of Prevention?
Primary Level of Prevention
Preclinical stage is
Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Level of Prevention?
Primary Level of Prevention
Clinical stage is
Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Level of Prevention?
Secondary Level of Prevention
Resolution stage is
Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Level of Prevention?
Tertiary Level of Prevention
What are the five characteristics of a successful screening program?
1. Valid (accurate)
2. Reliable (precise)
3. Capable of large group administration
4. Innocuous
5. High yield
Characteristics of a successful screening program:
_____ means that the screening has a high probability of correct classification of person tested.
Valid (accurate)
Characteristics of a successful screening program:
_____ means that result of the screening are consistant from place to place, time to time, and person to person.
Reliable (precise)
Characteristics of a successful screening program:
_____ means that the screening has few if any side effects, and the test is minimally invasive.
Innocuous
Characteristics of a successful screening program:
_____ means that the screening us able to detect enough new cases to warrent the effort and expense (yield defined as amount of previously unrecognized disease that is diagnosed and treated as a result of screening).
High yield