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15 Cards in this Set

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Epidemiology is the study of ?
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of health and illness within a population, factors that determine the population's health status, and use of the knowledge generated to control the development of health problems.
What are the three basic concepts that underlie epidemiologic perspectives on health and illness?
causality
risk
rates of occurance
In epidemiology, what is meant by causality?
Causality is the concept that one event is the result of another event. The main purpose of epidemiology is to identify causal links between contributing factors and resulting states of health and illness.
What are some of the theories of disease causation?
Physical sources
Environmental causes
Bacteriological agents
Single-cause and Multiple-cause
Name the seven criteria listed in Hill's criteria for assessing evidence of causation.
1. Strength of association
2. Consistency of findings
3. Biological plausibility
4. Demonstration of Correct temporal sequence.
5. Dose-response relationship
6. Specificity of the Association
7. Experimental evidence
"A relative risk of 7 provides stronger evidence of a causal association than a relative risk of 1.5".
This statement is an example of which of the criteria for causality?
Strength of Association.

A strong association between a potential risk factor and an outcome supports a causal hypothesis.
"Studies have shown that the more a woman smokes during pregnancy, the greater the risk of delivering a low birth weight infant"

This statement is an example of which criteria for causality?
Dose-response relationship.

The risk of developing an outcome shoujld increase with increasing exposure, either in duration or in quantity.
What is meant by "risk"?
Risk is the probability that a given individual will develop a specific condition.
One's risk of developing a particular condition is affected by what?
Factors like: physical, emotional, environmental, lifestyles, and many other factors.
Define "Populations at Risk"
Populations at risk are what epidemiologists speak of when referring to groups of people who have the greatest potential to develop a particular health problem because of the presence or absence of certain contributing factors. The population at risk becomes the target group of any investigation designed to prevent or control the problem in question.
Define "target group"
A Target Group includes those individuals who would benefit from an intervention program.
Expl: the target group for an immunization campaign against pertussis would include children under age 10 as well as college students whose immunity is waning.
What is meant by "rates of occurrence" ?
Rates of occurrance are statistical measures that indicate the extent of health problems in a group. Rates of occurrence allow comparisons between groups of different sizes with respect to the extent of a particular condition.
Expl: A community with a population of 1,000 may report 50 cases of syphilis this year, whereas another community of 100,000 persons may report 5,000 cases. On the surface, it would seem that the second community has a greater problem with syphilis than that of the first; however, both communities have experienced 50 cases per 1,000 population. In other words, both have a problem with syphilis of comparable magnitude.
Define "Mortality"
Mortality is the ratio of the number of deaths in various categories to the number of people in a given population. Mortality rates describe deaths.
Define "Mobidity"
Morbidity is the ratio of the number of cases of a disease or condition to the number of people in the population. Morbidity rates describe cases of health conditions that may or may not result in death.
How does morbidity and mortality differ from one another?
Example:
The number of people in a particular group who die as a result of cardiovascular disease is reflected in the mortality rate. However, the number of people experiencing cardiovascular disease is indicated by the morbidity rate.