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23 Cards in this Set

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Why does the theory and research regarding consultation lag far behind?
1. a theoretitical attitude against it, 2. it lacks the orginization, leadership and resources, 3. consultation practices have changed rapidly, 4. difficulties in defining variables, 5. initial goals may change
Def. of consultation
"voluntary relationhip b/n a professional helper and help needing individual, group or social unit in which the consultant is providing help to the client in defining and solving work related problem, or potential problem, with a client or client system.
Common characteristics of most consulting approaches
Consultation is: 1. content based - supported by a recognized body of knowledge. 2. goal oriented - objective and often work related goal. 3. goverened by variable roles and relationship rules. 4. process oriented - involves gathering data, recommending solutions and offering support. 5. triadic 6. based on ideoligies, value systems and ethics. 7. system oriented - aims to help change aspects of the system, such as structure
Consultation vs. counseling
1. the content of the consulting interview is a unit external to the consultee. 2. Most consulting takes place in a natural setting. 3. consultation is usually saught when a system is in decline or crisis. 4. Focus more on content then feelings, 5. play more of a catalyst role, 6. work indirectly rather then directly
4 of the most comprehensive models of consultation
1. Expert or provision model, 2. Doctor-patient or prescription model, 3. mediation model, 4. process consultation or collaberation model
Expert or provision model of consultation
direct service provided to consultees with not enough time, inclination, etc. to solve the problem. Advantage: experts can handle difficulties and consultees can continue work. Disadvantage: consultants are blamed if bad outcome
Doctor-Patient or perscription model of consultation
consultees are advised about what is wronge with the targeted 3rd party and what should be done. Model usually implemented when consultee does not have confidence in their own intervention strategies.
Mediation Model
Consultants act as coordinators - unify the services. They coordinate the services already being provided and create an alternative plan that represents the mutually acceptable synthesis.
Process consultation or collaberation model of consultation
consultants are the facilitators of the problem solving process. Main task is to get consultees actively involved in finding solutions to the problems.
Levels of consultation
individual, group, and organization/community
Individual consultation
Can employ a role reversal technique, or could teach self managment skills: 1. Self monitoring, 2. self-measurment, 3. self-mediation, 4. self-maintenance. Mutual trust and respect are essential for individual consultation
Group consultaiton
when several people share a similar problem. Group may be focused on either problem solving (consultant serves as catalyst or facilitator)or persons orientated (may help group members build teams to understand and resolve persons problems).
Organization/Community consultation
because size -the consultant must possess sophisticated knowledge of systems to operate effectively on this level. They are external to the project. Can stress enviornmental mapping where can change agents to improve the setting/environment.
Aplin's model
a model that depicts the content and process areas that a consultant should be aware of when working on orginizational/community basis
Splete's nine-stage process
based on the premise that client;s collaberate w/consultants ro work on predetermined concernes. 1. Precontract. 2. contract and exploration of relationship. 3. contracting. 4. problem identification. 5. problem analysis, 6. feedback and planning, 7. impplentation of the plan, 8. evaluation of the plan, 9. conclusion and termination of relationship
Dustin and Ehly 5 stage process of consultation
1. Phasing in - relationship building, 2. Problem Identification. 3, Implementation 4. Follow up and evaluation, 5. Termination
School counseling as consultation
Consultation by school counselors: enhances overall school achievmant, improves student self concept, reduces stress, better classroom and managment skills, and facilitates moral growth of students.
Umansky and Holloway advocate 4 approaches to consultation in schools
1. Adlerian based approach - assumes individuals lack info. Consultant teaches within the structure and promotes pos. behavior. 2. Behavioral approach = instructing consultees how to use behavioral approaches 3. Mental health approach = psychodynamic theory - help teachers gain insight into self and students. 4. Orginizational/ Develpment Approach = emphasizes the context
Caplan 3 level def. of preventions
1. primary prevention - actively changing environment and teaching life skills. 2. Secondary prevention - alleviate problem areas abd attempt early detection and reversal of crisis. 3. Teritary prevention - reduction in impairment that may result from psychological disorders
6 levels of community health consultation
1. client centered case consultation, 2. consultee centered, 3. Program centered - administrative consulting, 4. consultee centered admisitstrative, 5. community centered ad hoc consultation, 6. Consulltee centered ad hoc
5 trends that have continued to influence agency consultation
1. downsizing of organizations, 2. mergers, 3. rebirth of committment leadership by managers, 4. processed based technologies, 5. egilitarian social and organizational values
Stums Directed individual response educational counseling technique
so student can conceptualize the consultation process. 1. establish relationship, 2. identify and clarify the problem situation, 3. determine desired outcome, 4. develop ideas and strategies, 5. develop plan, 6. specify the plan, confirm the consulting relationship
Gallessich advocates future consultation models should be based on 3 models
1. scientific/technologocal consultation - focus on knowledge deficits, 2. Human development consultation - educator/facilitator in affectice and cognitive processes. 2. Social/Political - paritson role to help change organizations so that they conform with particular values, such as democracy.