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83 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Gerry Philipsen
Developed the Speech Codes Theory
Deborah Tannen
Devoloped Genderlect Styles
Three ways to conceptualize culture.
Culture as COMMUNITY
Culture as CONVERSATION
Culture as CODE
Approaches the study, or research, of culture from the "inside."
EMIC
Approaches the study, or reseach, of culture from the "outside."
ETIC
Speech Codes Theory (SCT)
Conceptualizes Culture as a Code and takes the Emis study approach.
Goal of Speech Codes Theory
Understanding General Principles about Human Communication
The speech codes theory has what kind of influence?
Speech Code Theory uses formative influence.
Define Formative Influence
Has the ability to modify or develop based on person's ability to form, and how well they were influenced to do so.
Speech Codes Theory encourages "ethnography of speaking" which is.
"studies that would analyse in detail how language is deployed as a constitutive feature of the indigenous settings and events that constitute the social life of the societies of the world",
What was Philipsen's first study regarding speech codes?
It was an investigation in "Teamsterville" a southside neighborhood in Chicago.
What is the significance of "Teamsterville?"
Philipsen found that there were distinctive ways of "talking like a man!"
What was Philipsen's second study regarding speech codes?
Philipsen's second was Nacirema with emphasis on "open communication!"
How did Philipsen explore his Nacirema study?
He explored this concept through interviews, watching the Phil Donahue Show, collecting newspapers, and popular magazines.
How many propistions deal with the Speech Codes Theory?
The Speech Code Theory has five different propisitions.
What is the first proposition of (SCT)?
Speech Codes are DISTINCTIVE.
The second proposition of SCT?
For a particular culture, the speech code impiclates a particular pyschology, sociology, and rhetoric.
MULTIPLICITY OF SPEECH CODES
The third proposition of SCT?
Speech codes provide constitutive meaning to communication.
The fourth propositition of SCT?
Codes are moven into speaking itself including: Pattern of Speaking, Metacommunicative vocabularly, and Culturally distinct rhetorical forms.
The last and fifth proposition of SCT?
Speech codes shape interaction in a cultural community.
What is Nacirema?
The "cultural informants" were from Santa Barbara or Seattle, but not confined to the West Coast of the United States, and he labeled the Nacirema (American spelled backwards).
Deborah Tanned of Georgetown University, (author of "You Just Don't Understand" 1990) devoloped this particular theory.
Genderlects Styles
What does a Genderlect Style do?
Shows differences between male's and female's talk is cross cultural, and differences that begin in childhood.
In the 3rd proposition, the psychology multiplicity does what?
This Speech Code "thematizes" nature of individuals.
What did Anna Wong Lowe do?
Anna Wong Lowe interviewed 5 females and 6 males. She audiotaped them asking jokes.
Who remembered and told more jokes?
The males told more jokes.
Females were less likely to remember the jokes.
Who told more demeaning, sexist, homophobic, and racist jokes?
Males
Who told more sill or corny jokes?
Females
What did Don Kulik find to be true in the Gapun of Papua, New Guinea?
Males took part in kros, or yelling in a hut. Females took part in orate, sitting in a communal hut and discuss problems in a very indirect way.
What is the study of semantics?
Considers the "meaning" and the links between signs and referents.
What is the study of syntactics?
Considers the rules ("grammars")that govern the construction of utterances.
What is the study of pragmatics?
Looks at the way language is used in social situations.
What theory did J.L. Austin and John Searle develop?
Speech Act Theory
What is the central idea of Speech act theory?
That the speaker use language that listeners understand and also that it relfects the intention with the words being spoken, treated like an action.
What are the four levels of the Speech Act Theory?
Utterance, Propositional, Illocutionary, and Perlocutionary.
What is the criticism of Speech Act Theory?
That it assumes words themselves have force. However, force cannot be taken out of context, social position.
Who developed the Communication Accomadation Theory (CAT)?
Howard Giles and his colleagues.
What does CAT attempt to consider?
Ways in which people accomodate to people to others during interaction of processes of convergence, divergence, and maintenance.
Convergence behavior
adjusts rate and has politeness. "feminine language"
Divergence behavior
Used to underscore the differences. "masculine language"
CAT dimensions of convergent and divergent behavior
can be upward or downward, unimodal or multimodal, symmetrical or asymmetrical, and objective or perceptual.
Convergence and Divergence used in interactions
Convergence looks for social acceptance. Divergence is searching for social identity.(Both can be influenced by the situation).
High Context of Communication
Information is in context and harder for outsiders to understand.
Low Context of Communication
Information is in the message. Easier for outsiders to understand.
High and Low Context of Communication of cultures.
All cultures use both high and low but most use one more than the other.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
Language is important and influences interpretation and perception of environment.
What is culture?
Patterned, Dynamic, constructed, revealed, and learned through communication, and personal.
What are Hofstede's four dimensions of culture?
Individualism- Collectivism, Masculinity - Feminity, power distance, and uncertainty advoidance.
Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory was devoloped by whom?
William Gudykunst
Goal and Thought of Gudykunst's theory?
Goal is to develop "effective language" whereby people from different cultures can predct and explain each other's behavior.
Thought is that uncertainty is a thought and anxiety is a feeling.
Who devoloped the Face-Negotiation Theory?
Stell Ting-Toomey
Goals of Face-Negotiation Theory
Builds upon the cultural differences in concepts of individualism and collectivism.
Define "allocentric"
Central focus is on others. Projected by the Japanes.
Define "idiocentric"
Central focus is on self. Projected by Americans.
Communication's Professor that spoke of organizational theory?
Dr. O'here
Communication's Professor that discussed rhetoric. Listened to the Dixie Chicks?
Dr. Lisa Foster
Communication's Professor who researches political and media studies?
Dr. Jill Edy
Communication's Professor who talked about business study with communications?
Dr. Hansen
Who developed the Narrative paradigm?
Walter Fisher
Who developed Semiotics?
Roland Barthes
Who developed Cultural Studies?
Stuart Hall
Who developed Cultivation Theory?
George Gerbner
Who developed Agenda Setting Theory?
Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw
Developed Functional Perspective on Group Decision Making?
Randy Hirokawa and Dennis Gouran
Developed Adaptive Structuration Theory?
Marshall Scott Poole
Developed Information Systems Approach to Organizations?
Karl Weick
Developed Cultural Approach to Organizations?
Clifford Geertz and Michael Pacanowsky
Developed Critical Theory of Communication Approach to Organization?
Stanley Deetz
Developed the Rhetoric?
Aristotle
Developed Dramatism
Kenneth Burke
Developed the Spiral of Silence?
Elisabeth Noell-Neumann
Developed Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory?
Willaim Gudykunst
Developed Face-Negotion Theory?
Stell Ting-Toomey
Developed Speech Codes Theory?
Gerry Philipsen
Developed Genderlect Styles?
Deborah Tannen
What does Stuart Hall believe to be true about Cultural Studies?
Mass Media maintains the dominance of already held positions of power.
What is the myth that mass media serves to society?
That society is held together by common norms, including equal opportunity, respect for diversity, one-person-one vote, individual rights, and rile of law.
What is the agenda setting theory?
Not what to think, but what to think about, mass media communication.
What does Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw believe the mass media is held responsible for?
They found that the media is responsible for the almost perfect correlation between media and public ordering of priorities. Media Agenda yields Voter's Agenda.
Agenda Setting theory also discusses media framing. What is media framing?
Framing is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communication text.
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann's Spiral of Silence is in reference to what?
It refers to the increasing pressure people feel to conceal their views when they thik they are the minority.
What is the centrifugal force that accelerates spiral of silence?
It is the fear of isolation. People fear situations when they are the one that is isolated on their views. Thus people will express views openly if they feel that they are among people who have the same views as them.
What is William Gudykunst's main focus of Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory?
Focus is on encounters between cultural in-groups and strangers.