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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Communication
the process of creating or sharing meaning in informal conversation, group interaction, or public speaking.
Participants
individual who take turns assuming the roles of senders and receivers during an interaction
contexts
the physical, social, historical, psychological, and cultural settings in which communication occurs.
physical context
the location, envirgonmental conditions (temp, light, noise), physical distance between communicators, any seating arrangements, and time of day of a communication event.
social context
the expressed purpose of the event as well as teh nature of the relationships between and among the participants.
historical context
the background provided by previous communication episodes between the participants that influence understandings in the current encounter.
psychological context
the mood and feelings each person brings to the conversation.
cultural context
the beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, social hierarchies, religion, notions of time, and roles of a group of people that help participants form and interpret messages.
messages
verbal utterances and nonverbal behaviors that senders use to convey their meanings.
meaning
the combination of ideas and feelings that exist in a sender's mind.
symbols
words, sounds, and actions that are recognized by others as representing specific content meaning.
encoding
the cognitive thinking process of transforming ideas and feelings into symbols and organizing them into a message.
decoding
the process of transforming messages from another back into one's own ideas and feelings.
channel
a sensory route used to transmit messages.
noise
any external, internal, or semantic stimulus that interferes with sharing meaning.
external noises
sights, sounds, and other stimuli in the environment that draw people's attention away from what is being said or done.
internal noises
unrelated thoughts and feelings that draw attention away from what is being said or done.
semantic noises
unintended meanings aroused by certain symbols and behaviors that distract your attention from what another person has to say.
feedback
a receivers response to a message.
Functions of communication
1. to meet our social needs
2. to enhance and maintain our sense of self
3. to develop relationships
4. to exchange information
5. to influence others
interpersonal communication settings
informal conversations between two or more people.
problem solving group settings
participants come together for teh specific purpose of solving a problem or arriving at a decision.
public speaking settings
one participant, the speaker, delivers a prepared message to a group or audience who has assembled to hear the speaker.
electronically mediated communication settings
participants who do not share a physical context but communicate through the use of technology.
email
electronic correspondence conducted between two or more users on a network.
newsgroup
an electronic gathering plae for people with similar interests.
internet chat
an interactive message exchange between two or more people in a chat room where teh message and typed responses appearing instantly on participants' computer screens.
spontaneous expressions
spoken without much conscious thought.
scripted messages
phrasings learned from past encounters that we judge to be appropriate to the present situation.
constructed messages.
messages put together with carefult thought when we recognize that our known scrips are inadequate for the situation
immediacy
the degree of liking or attractiveness in a relationship.
control
the degree to which one participant is perceieved to be more dominant or powerful.
cultural diversity
variations between and among people that affect every aspect of communication.
ethics
a set of moral principles that may be held by a society, a group, or an individual
truthfulness and honestly
refraining from lying, cheating, stealing, or deception
immediacy
the degree of liking or attractiveness in a relationship.
control
the degree to which one participant is perceieved to be more dominant or powerful.
cultural diversity
variations between and among people that affect every aspect of communication.
ethics
a set of moral principles that may be held by a society, a group, or an individual
truthfulness and honestly
refraining from lying, cheating, stealing, or deception
moral dilemma
a choice involving an unsatisfactory alternative
integrity
maintaining a consitency of belief and action (keeping promises)
fairness
achieving the right balance of interests without regard to one's own feelings and without showing favor to any side in a conflict.
respect
showing regard or consideration for others and their ideas, even if we don't agree with them.
responsibility
being accountable for one's actions and what one says.
communication competence
the impmression that communicative behavior is both appropriate and effective in a given situation.
skills
goal-oriented actions or action sequences that we can master and repeat in appropriate situations.
how to write a goal statement
1. state the problem
2. state the specific goal
3. outline a specific procedure for reaching the goal.
4. devise a method of determining when the goal has been reached.
perception
the process of selectively attending to information and assigning meaning to it.
pattern
a set of characteristics used to differentiate some things from others.
interpret
assigning meaning to information.
self concept
your self identity
self esteem
your overall evaluation of your competence and personal worthiness.
incongruence
the gap between our inaccurate self perceptions and reality.
self fulfilling prophecies
events that happen as teh result of being foretold, expected, or talked about.
self-talk
the internal conversations we have with ourselves
role
a pattern of learned behaviors that people use to meet the perceived demands of a particular context.
uncertainty reduction
the process of monitoring the social environment to learn more about self and others.
implicit personality theories
assumptions peole have develed about which physical characterisitcs and personality traits or behaviors are assocaited with another.
halo effect
to generalize and perceive that a person has a whole set of characerisitcs when you have actually observed only one characteristic, trait, or behavior
stereotypes
attributions that cover up individual differences and ascribe certain characterisitcs to an entire group of people.
prejudice
a rigid attitude that is based on group membership and predisposes and individual to feel, think or act in a negative way toward another group or person.
discrimination
a negative action toward a social group or its members on account of group membership.
"isms"
racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, ageism, ableism, and other isms occur when a powerful group believes its members are superior to those of another group and that this superiority gives the powerful group the right to dominate or discriminate against the inferior group
attributions
reasons we give for others' behavior
how to improve social perception
1. question the accuracy of your perception
2. seek more information to verify perceptions
3. realize that your perceptions of a person will change over time.
perception check
a message that reflects your understanding of another person's behavior.
language
a body of symboles (most commonly words) and the systems for their use in messages that are common to the peole of the same speech community.
speech community
a group of people who speak the same language (also called a language community)
words
symbols used by a speech community to represent objects, ideas, and feelings
denotation
the direct, explicit meaning a speech community formally gives a word, it is the meaning found in a dictionary.
syntactic context
the position of a word in a sentence and the other words around it.
connotation
the feelings or evaluations we associate with a word.
low context cultures
meaning is embedded mainly in teh messages transmitted and is presented directly.
high context cultures
meaning is interpreted based on physical, social and relational context.
specific language
language that clarifies meaning by narrowing what is understood from a general category to a particular item or gropu within that category.
concrete words
words that appeal to the sense and help us see, hear, smell, taste, or touch
precise words
words that narrow a larger category
dating information
specifying the time or time period that a fact was true or known to be true.
generalizing
drawing a conclusion from particulars.
indexing
the practice of acknowledging the presence of individual differences when voicing generalizations.
speaking appropriately
choosing language and symbols that are adapted to the needs, interest,s knowledge, and attitutudes of the listenerse and avoiding language that alienates them.
jargon
technical terminology
slang
informal, nonstandard vocabulary
generic language
using words that may apply only to one sex, race, or other gruop as though they represent everyone.
non parallel language
terms are changed because of the sex, race, or other characteristic of the individual
marking
the addition of sex, race, age, or other designations to a description
hate speech
the use of words and phrases to demean another person or group and to express teh speakers hatred and prjudice toward that person or group.
nonverbal communication
bodily actions and vocal qualities that typically accompany a verbal message.
body motions or kinesics
the use of eye contact, facial expression, gesture, and posture to communicate
eye contact or gaze
how and how much we look at people with whom we are communicating.
facial expression
the arrangement of facial muscles to communicate emotional states or reactions to messages
gestures
the movements of hands, arms, and fingers that alone or in concert with a verbal message convery meaning
posture
the position and arrangment of the body
hows body motions are used
1. take the place of a word or phrase
2. illustrate what a speaker is saying
3. display non verbal expression of feelings
4. control or regulate the flow of a conversation
5. relieve tension
paralanguage or vocalics
the nonverbal "sound" of what we hear, how something is said
pitch
the highness or lowness of tones of voice
volume
the loudness or softness of tone
rate
the speed at which a person speaks
quality
the timbre of character of voice
vocal interferences
extraneous sounds or words that interrupt fluence speech
poise
a manner of bearing that indicates a persons level of self confidence
touch or haptics
the use of hands, arms, and other body parts to pat, hug, slap, kiss, pinch, stroke, hold, embrace, and tickle
duration
the amount of time we regard as appropriate for certain events or activities
activity
what people perceive should be done in a given period
punctuality
the extent to which one adheres strictly to the appointed or regular time.
territory
space over which we may claim ownership.