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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the categories of media effects
level-micro vs. macro
doman-content, topic
duration-long or short term effect
intention-intended vs. unintended
medium-radio, tv, newspaper, magazine, internet
What is another name for the magic bullet theory?
The hypodermic needle theory
Why is the hypodermic needle thoery also known as an S-R model?
because it is Stimulus-Response
What are two key assumptions of the magic bullet theory?
•The media are powerful instruments able to persuade audience
•The audience is passive-powerless to resist
What is the S-O-R model?
two step flow model
What does Porter suggest accounts for the paradigm shifts in the study of the mass media?
There are intervening variables that influence behavior. We do not all respond to media messages in the same way.
What were the major findings of the Two-step flow study?
subjects were more influenced by others than by the media.
Why do we strive for cognitive consistency?
Because we seek out messages that are consistent with our beliefs and values.
How do we strive for cognitive consistency?
Through selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention
selective exposure
avoid exposure to information that will create dissonance
selective perception
we interpet messages in a manner consistent with our attitudes and beliefs
selective retention
we remember what we want to remember
Why is the Law of minimal effects also called the reinforcement theory?
Because it states that the media might be a contributory agent, but not the sole cause. Its conclusion is that media have some influence on some people some of the time, under some conditions.
What is the premise of the law of minimal effects?
The media do not serve as sufficient cause of audience effects, but functions through a nexus of other influencing factors, such as such attitudesm personality, social situation
Why are long term media effects associated with the era of cultural theory?
Because long term effects are powerful
What are the three types of media effects?
•cognitive or intellectual
•affective or emotional
which type of media effect is most commonly considered when discussing media effects?
the mechanical reproduction of behavior
assuming the general characteristics (attitudes, values) of a character
What is more common, imitation or identification?
Ann Marie Barry's position on television violence
the continued violence on TV makes it a normalcy, and becomes people's expectations for the world.
Ellen Wartella's concern about television and violence
even though it isn't the only contributor to violence in the world, it was the easiest to control
4 primary effects of viewing media violence
•the learning effect
•the mean world syndrome
•desensitization effect
•appetite effect
the learning effect
high levels of viewing television violence is correlated with increased acceptance of aggressive attitudes and behaviors
the mean world syndrome
viewing violence increases fear of being a victim of violence
desensitization effect
prolonged viewing of media violence can lead to emotional desensitization towards real violence and victims.
appetite effect
a steady diet of media violence increases the appetite for more violence in entertainment and real life
what effect of viewing media violence is most like the cultivation theory
the mean world syndrome
what is another name for the mean world syndrome
the fear effect