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92 Cards in this Set

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What is communication?
Communication is the process of people sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways.
What are the key elements in Verbal and non Verbal Communication?
1. Effective communication involves more than just talking or listening. Good communication is hard work
2. Effective communicators check out the frame of reference of persons they want to communicate with and try to encode their messages specifically for each person's understanding
3. Effective communicators also realize the importance of stimulus and motivation as well as using all three codes (language, pfralanguage, and non verbal communicaiton.
4. Even when communicaiton seems successful, they follow up to make sure all is well concerned with is the one that is receiving
5. When problems occur, they analyze them to ensure the same types of problems don't happen again
6. Effective communicators make sure their communication is ethical at all times.
What are three main ways organizations coordinate employees
o Mutual adjustment
o Direct supervision
o Standardization
List the barriers to communication
1. Frame of reference
2. Filtering
3. Language
4. Listening
5. Structure
6. Semantics
7. Status differences
8. Information Overload
What is frame of reference?
1. Frame of reference- background or experience
a. interpreting the same communication differently based on learning, experience and culture
b. Inaccurate encoding and decoding can be responsible for major communication breakdowns. These breakdowns occur because we use our own background and experience to encode and decode messages.
c. There are no identical frames of reference—no communication can be 100% effective
d. Because of individual frames of reference, a message progressing up or down the chain of command may be:
i. Leveled—some details are lost
ii. Condensed –messages become shorter and simpler
iii. Sharpened—some details are highlighted, becoming more important
iv. Assimilated—ambiguities are clarified to conform to past messages and future expectations
v. Embellished—details are added
e. Code—symbols that carry the message
i. Language—verbal code—spoken or written words
ii. Paralanguage—vocal code-vocal elements—voice, pitch, rate, volume and emphasis
iii. Nonverbal cues—visual code—all intentional and unintentional means other than writing or speaking—facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, appearance, posture
To communicate effectively, the sender must communicate the same message by all three codes.—whenever there is a conflict among the messages received, people tend to believe more of what they see than what they hear.
What is channel when dealing with communication?
Channel—the medium selected to carry the message—
• face to face carries all three
• Television, Radio and telephone, lack visual-greater risk of communication breakdown
• Mail and emails even more limited

Channel Selection—deciding which channel is most appropriate—consider these:
• Importance of message—face to face for most important
• Needs and abilities of receiver—some are better with face to face and some are better with memos
• Amount and speed of feedback required—complicated messages and messages needing immediate feedback are normally best with face to face
• Necessity of permanent record—written instructions memos e-mail can be used to verify
• Cost of the channel—time and energy equal cost
• Formality or informality desired—face to face is less formal then memo or newsletter—email least formal
What should you do when receiving feedback from others?
• Tell people you want feedback
• Identify the areas in which you want feedback
• Set aside time for regularly schedule feedback sessions
• Use silence to encourage feedback
• Watch for nonverbal responses
• Paraphrase—summarize statement in your own words
• Use statements that encourage feedback
• Reward feedback
• Follow up
What should you do when giving feedback
• Direct feedback toward behavior rather than toward person
o Descriptive feedback—tactfully honest and objective
o Evaluative feedback—judgmental and accusatory

Use language that is descriptive instead of evaluative
Recognize that feedback involves sharing ideas, not giving advice
Include only as much information as the person can handle at one time
Remember that effective feedback is immediate and well timed
Allow face-saving when possible

Environment—time, place, physical and social surroundings
All these affect communication

Climate—organization’s social and work environment
What is noise when communicating?
anything that interferes with communication by distorting or blocking the message
List some external noise.
• External—
o distractions in environment
 poor grammar
 shuffling papers
 phone ringing
 people talking
 cold air in room
 poor lighting
List some internal noise.
o Conditions of communicators
 Headache
 Daydreaming
 Lack of sleep
 Preoccupation with other problems
 lack of knowledge of topic
How can you avoid unethical practices in communication?
To avoid unethical practices:
o avoid intentional deception
o avoid communication that harms others
o avoid treating members unfairly—equal treatment for all
What is communication and ethics.
Communication and Ethics:
Ethics—standards by which behaviors are evaluated for:
o their morality
o their rightness or wrongness
When applied to communication, ethics are the moral principles that guide our judgments about the good and bad, right and wrong, or communication
What is filtering when dealing with communicaiton
2. Filtering- partial information is transferred (upward, downward, horizontally, diagonally)
a. Accidental- errors in coding and decoding downward due to frame of reference
b. Intentional- sender assumes parts of a message are not needed by receiver making original meaning of message distorted
c. School districts- upward filtering; admin. holds power (raises, promotions, rewards etc.) subordinates manipulate unfavorable info
What is Sturcture when dealing with communication?
3. Structure- upward and downward communication worsens the higher or lower it
travels to reach receiver (changed, shortened, modified, amended, misinterpreted, fails to reach destination)
What is communicaiton overload when dealing with communcation barriers?
4. Information Overload- too much information at one time
a. Uncertainty- turbulent external environment causes school districts to obtain more information to reduce uncertainty
b. Role specialization and task complexity- wide variety of specialists provide info to accomp. tasks info must be processed
c. advances in communication technology- computers increases available data, admin deluged with info, cannot respond or absorb all of it, decisions based on partial info, leading to decisions based on inaccurate info
What is semantics when dealing with communication barriers?
5. Semantics- same words have different meanings; one cannot transmit understanding; one can only transmit info. in the form of words; meanings are not in the words but in the minds of the receiver
What is status differencs when dealing with communication barriers?
6. Status differences- school districts create status diff. through titles, office space, parking space, car, clothes, stationary, private secretary, how time is handled. The higher the status in the school district the less likely for effective communication with personnel a few levels removed. The higher the status the more communication demands. Communication limited to those with direct influence on them ex. superintendent- area superintendents and sch. board
What is language when dealing with communicaiton barrier
Language- different language
What is Listening when dealing with communication barriers
Listening- poor skills
a.Stop talking
b.Put the talker at ease
c.Show the talker you want to listen
d.Remove distractions
e.Empathize with the talker
f.Be patient
g.Hold your temper
h.Go easy on argument and criticism
i.Ask questions
j.Stop talking
How can you overcome barriers to communication?
Repetition- send message over and over; by using 2 or more channels to transmit message, comm. failure is less likely
a. Send follow up memo after personal discussion (documentation)
b. Send minutes of meeting
c. Sch. admin.- verbal explanation, written statement, signature
2. Empathy- understanding the other persons frame of reference and comm. accordingly
3. Understanding- messages should contain simple, understandable language
4. Feedback- 2-way comm.; sender & receiver arrive at mutual understanding
a. Face-to-face best way
b. Promote and cultivate feedback, don’t force it
c. Reward those who provided feedback; use feedback received
d. Go to the source to observe results
e. Give feedback to subordinates on outcome of feedback received
List some teams/groups withing a school and how the principal can enhance communication with and among the teams/groups.
1. MBWA- management by wandering around; increases comm. with teachers and students
2. Written- newsletters, memos, commendation; teachers, students, community, parents, central office
3. Faculty and staff groups- establish committees and recognize established groups; shares power; attend meetings and listen
4. Comm. with students- meet with organized student groups (should influence decisions), public address system
5. Comm. with parents- parent groups, larger community ex. real estate packets, conferences, business-school partnerships, volunteer recruitment, meetings in community, parent-community involvement plan, coffee with principal
Describe Verbal Communication process.
Verbal: Communication Process
1. Ideating- development of ideas, messages or info to transmit to individual or group
2.Encoding- words, nonverbal cues, pictures or diagrams transmitted to sender to express an idea or message
3.Transmitting- method by which message is sent email, phone, television etc.
4.Receiving- how well listens or comprehends meaning of message
5.Decoding- translating and interpreting a message
6.Acting- ignore, store, take action, give feedback message received
Describe Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal:
1. Kinesis- body language, facial expression, eye contact
2. Paralanguage (voice quality)- pitch, speech rate, volume, tone, emphasis
3. Proxemics- physical environment, location, space (personal body space)
4. Chronemics- the use of time ex. being late varies depending on status
Describe Listening when dealing with school.
Listening:
1. Stop talking
2. Put the talker at ease
3. Show the talker you want to listen
4. Remove distractions
5. Empathize with the talker
6. Be patient
7. Hold your temper
8. Go easy on argument and criticism
9. Ask questions
10. Stop talking
Describe writing communication skills needed in leadership.
Writing:
1. 5 W’s + How
2. State purpose- clearly concisely and coherently
3. State points- candidly, completely, convincingly
4. Use appropriate tone
5. Organize thoughts sequentially
6. Professional jargon only for professional audience
7. Mechanics- grammar and spelling
What is conflict management?
Conflicts arise from a variety of sources, including the lack of time to effectively manage issues and conflicting role expectations arising from multiple stakeholders.
Lindelow and Scott identified four sources of conflict in schools.
• Poor communications
o Misunderstandings regarding expectations for teachers, students or parents
• Organizational structure, with the complexity of conflicts lessening in organizations in which participation and empowerment are the rule rather than the exception
• Human factors, including personality conflicts and competing interests and goals
• Competition over limited resources including those resources needed to effectively perform the job assignment as well as personal resources such as salaries and travel opportunities
Name trhee types of conflicts found in 2002 when dealing with conflicts.
Parent conflicts
• Student conflicts
• Staff conflicts
List some behaviors that ererged as consistently leading to successful management of conflict.
1. Gathering and providing information—giving a factual account of the situation, documenting, researching, talking with students, talking to witnesses, asking probing questions, and increasing written communication
2. Intentional choices for meeting location
3. Physical verbal gestures—shaking hands, good eye contact, listening first and actively to the complainant, being consistent and firm using sense of humor, and playing calming music
4. Setting guidelines—time limits, establishing non-negotiable
5. Timing—not deciding on a consequence immediately, sharing information early and often, taking time to research the issue, allowing enough time for the meeting, taking time to make a decision, spending adequate time discussing the conflict, and, particularly with staff conflicts, moving forward with change slowly
6. Empowering others—asking for parent input, giving the parent power in decision-making having students decide the appropriate consequence, asking for suggestions and giving responsibility to all involved
List some conflict Stragegies
1. Avoidance (withdrawal) use if:
a. Issue is trivial
b. Parties lack comm. skills needed to prevent destructive escalations
c. Potential losses from an open conflict outweigh potential gains
d. Not enough time to work through issue adequately
**Drawback- confrontation only delayed or transferred to another issue
2. Accommodation (smoothing)
a. Minor issue
b. Relationship damage would harm both parties
c. Tempers too hot for productive discussion
d. Temporary reduction in conflict allows time for additional research or info
**Drawback- temporary solution
List some conflict Stragegies
3. Competition (forcing)
a. Decision or action must be immediate
b. Parties in conflict have great respect for power and will submit to arbitration
only because the arbitrator’s power is greater
c. Views conflict as win-lose situation
**Drawbacks- temporary solution; losers gain more power and reinstate conflict; cause of conflict not resolved
4. Compromise
a. Both parties stand to gain
b. Ideal or solution of quality is not required
c. Time is short
d. Temporary solution is needed for a complex problem (problem-solving session
held later for better solution)
** Drawbacks- everyone loses something, best solution probably not reached
List some conflict Stragegies
5. Collaboration (problem-solving)
Problem Solving Procedure:
1. Define the problem- discuss symptoms, size, seriousness, word in question form
2. Research and analyze- list topics needing research, gather info, discuss info and opinions in organized manner
3. Establish criteria (guidelines, boundaries, standards, rules) brainstorm, discuss criteria in order to reduce list, divide into groups, and assign numerical weight
4. List possible alternatives- brainstorm, list ideas
5. Evaluate each alternative-eliminate, combine, compare numerical value
6. Implement and evaluate best alternative
**Drawbacks- unsuccessful if parties have different values or goals
What can you do when dealing with difficult conversations?
1. Listen to their argument
2. Go to the balcony- stepping back form the situation in which you find yourself in order to regain your composure and to achieve a fresh perspective.
3. Step to their side- help the other bargainer regain composure; Get the other bargainer to listen to your point of view; Develop respect from the other bargainer
4. Use their ideas with “and” statements-
5. Know your best alternative to negotiate agreement (BATNA)
If you have impasse occur what should you do?
If Impasse Occurs
1. Take a break
2. Review your criteria or standards
3. Determine if the standards should be changed
4. Adjourn and come back another day
5. Inject humor to break the tension
6. Ask a person to present the opposite view for his/her own view
Discuss the consensus building process. What is it?
Consensus means overwhelming agreement. And, it is important that consensus be the product of a good-faith effort to meet the interests of all stakeholders. The key indicator of whether or not a consensus has been reached is that everyone agrees they can live with the final proposal; that is, after every effort has been made to meet any outstanding interests. Thus, consensus requires that someone frame a proposal after listening carefully to everyone's interests. Interests, by the way, are not the same as positions or demands. Demands and positions are what people say they must have, but interests are the underlying needs or reasons that explain why they take the positions that they do.
What is consensus?
Consensus- all members agree to accept a particular solution even though it may not have been their original choice
How can a principal attempt to build consensus
A principal can attempt to build consensus by:
1. Building collegially
2. Forging partnerships with parents, community, business, admin, other campuses
3. Manipulate symbols, resources, rewards toward common goal
What do consensus building efforts set out to achieve?
Most consensus building efforts set out to achieve unanimity. Along the way, however, it often becomes clear that there are holdouts -- people who believe that their interests will be better served by remaining outside the emerging agreement. Should the rest of the group throw in the towel? No, this would invite blackmail (i.e. outrageous demands that have nothing to do with the issues under discussion). Most dispute resolution professionals believe that groups or assemblies should seek unanimity, but settle for overwhelming agreement that goes as far as possible toward meeting the interests of all stakeholders. It is absolutely crucial that this definition of success be clear at the outset.
What is public relations?
Public relations- a comprehensive two-way comm. process involving internal and external publics, with a goal of stimulating a better understanding of the role, objectives, accomplishments and needs of the organization.
How might a principal identify concerns and address issues related to public relations?
Community-wide Needs Assessment
1. Plan and conduct survey
2. Tabulate results
3. Assess and prioritize results
4. Initiate program in conjunction with other organizations & agencies outside of public school sector
What is organizational communication?
Communication is a process that links the individual, the group and the organization. Administrators plan, organize, set objectives, review results, motivate and staff employees and direct and coordinate. Communication is a necessity for effectively performing the duties of an administrator.
How can you be effective in an organization with communication?
Organizational Communication
o To be effective in an organization you need to be aware of both formal and, informal communication, realizing that sometimes the informal grapevine is more effective than formal (upward, downward, or horizaontal) communications
o Understand the three main ways organizations coordinate employees
o Mutual adjustment
o Direct supervision
o Standardization
What are various applications of communication theory?
o Understanding communication and coordination models
o Traditional model—very structured, downward flow
o Human Relations model—employees are given more input, mostly downward, but supportive, and informal communication is acknowledge
o Human resources—team approach—flow is up, down, and across
o Systems Contingency—concerned with the organization as a whole. Must be flexible
o Transformation—newest—concerned with information technology—moving toward a blend of all models
What is the model of communication?
Model of Communication
Necessary:
Sender—source of the message
Receiver—the interpreter of the message
• During most of their communication, both will send and receive simultaneously
o Two Steps
 Stimulus – an internal or external stimulus triggers a thought, which in turn triggers the desire to communicate
• Internal stimulus—direct talking
• External stimulus—refreshments, soft music, special guest speakers
• Motivation—personal benefit in answering question or participation in communication
What are two steps that can not be ignored in communication?
The importance of the two steps cannot be overlooked.
Encoding and Decoding:
Encoding—process of putting a message into the form in which it will be communicated
Decoding—process the receiver goes through in trying to interpret the exact meaning of a message
What are three levels of communication?
Technical Level
Formal Level –
Compared to many other countries, the US has few formal rules

Violation causes a strong emotional response -- We do not question reason for rule. – as a child licking a plate at dinner table – tone of voice warned error was unacceptable

Informal Level –
Explain Technical Level
– the rules for cultural and non verbal behaviors are openly known and easily stated b most citizens of a particular culture -- health and educational practices – When a technical rule or behavior is broken unintentionally, very little emotion is involved—the mistake is pointed out and correction is made.
People who deliberately choose to ignore a company’s technical rules will likely find themselves out of a job
Explain Formal Level
the rules for behavior are specified, but the reasons for the rules are not –they are simply accepted without question by most people -- typical work hours – honesty is the best policy – punctuality is a good behavior -- personal rewards are related to performance
Explain Information level
neither the rules for behavior nor the reason for the rules are taught – they are unconsciously learned by imitation -- gestures – eye contact – status – office size – appt. arrival time – proper physical distance for conversations between strangers – they become automatic and are taken for granted
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Facial Expression and Eye Contact – face is responsible for most of meaning in nonverbal messages -- The eyes are the most expressive part of the face and have considerable effect on communication -- eye contact performs several functions.
Shows interest and Attentiveness
• Informal rules do call for constant or prolonged eye contact (except in cases or extreme anger or intimacy
• In US people tend to look at others while listening – more than when speaking
• Speakers tend to look away at the beginning of an utterance – look back occasionally to check the listener’s response and look again at the end to signal that feedback is expected
• Gazes should be longer and less frequent
• Interviewees should gaze frequently at the interviewer
• Witnesses in a trial who avoid looking directly at questioner are judged as less credible by jury
• Patients are more satisfied and disclose more information – when doctors gaze more at patients and give head nods
• Women tend to look at others more often and with longer gazes than men
• High-status people receive more eye gave than low-status people
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Eye Contact Signals the Wish to Participate -- people who want to interact usually make eye contact and smile
• Making eye contact with someone asking for volunteers is same as raising hand
• Avoiding eye contact can signal a desire to be left alone
Eye Contact Controls the Flow of Communication – eye contact signals others that it is okay to talk
• After asking for individual responses, speaker must glance across room to signal responses are okay
• Lack of eye contact can also signal it is time for conversation to end
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Eye Contact in Other Cultures -- different cultures have different nonverbal meanings – be careful not to assign US cultures

White listeners use 3 behaviors to show attentiveness: fairly direct eye contact, vocal noises, (like “uh huh), and head nodding. African Americans signal with only head nodding -- and may consider the 3 as a sign of hostility – or superiority
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Other Body Movements and Gestures -- are tied to culture even more closely than are facial expression and eye contact -- good posture is a must
Four Categories:
• Emblems – intentional body movements and gestures that carry an exact verbal meaning - obscene gestures – cultures may interpret differently though
• Illustrators – intentional movements or gestures that add to or clarify verbal meaning – point in the correct direction while giving directions
• Regulators – control flow of conversation – break in eye contact to signal end – head nod to signal agreement
• Adaptors – habitual gestures and movement we use in times of stress – flipping hair behind ear
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Clothing and Appearance – determine your status, credibility, and persuasiveness – extremely important to organization’s image -- basic business colors – navy – gray and neutrals such as tan or beige – business casual also includes green, gold, and black The darker the color the higher the rank -- dark conveys authority -- jackets are most important garment in business wardrobe – job applicants in darker colors appear more competent – suggestions to communicate authority
• Dark colors
• Simple classic lines
• Long sleeves
• Quality fabric
• High-quality shoes (immaculate)
• Clean shiny hair professionally cut
• Simple high quality jewelry kept to a minimum – metal watches
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Distance and Personal Space – differs from culture to culture
• Intimate Distance - contact to 18 inches -- private use
• Personal Distance – 18 inches to 4 feet – close friends or colleagues as they dine
• Social Distance – 4 feet to 12 feet – business transactions – who work together
7 feet to 12 feet - “ - with strangers
• Public Distance – 12 feet or more – between speaker and large group of listeners
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Seating for Comfort –
• Conducting Business – right angles 90 or 45 degrees – 4 ft. or less apart
• Working Closely Together – corner or side by side seating
• Working on Different Tasks – Distant seating – facing opposite each other
• Competing people – opposite seating – more distance
• Side by side on couch – rarely converse – converse with those across
• Group participation – circular pattern – more likely to ask questions
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Physical Environment –
• For each person – environment evokes emotional response
• Create open welcome space
• Color – yellow, rose, blue, green – improvement in students
Pink – less hostility
Pale colors – relax
Bright colors – excite
• Lighting – too much light can cause fatigue
• Odor – stirs up memories
• Ergonomics – science of mating machines to human requirements – positions of computer and mouse
Lists some types of nonverbal communication and their effects on business communication
Nonverbal status symbols in Business – clothes – a man’s tie most important status symbol -- do not overdress -- corner offices – carry more status because usually larger and have more windows –offices out of mainstream also – assistants need to be close to boss for power – solid wood furniture – green plants – quality artwork –
Lists some signs of power in business communication
Signs of Power
• Expansive, confident movements
• Tall, upright standing posture, arms at sides, feet placed slightly apart
• Relaxed affable, familiar behavior
• Ability to turn one’s back on another to get an object
• Comfortable, relaxed, seated positions, legs crossed, arms asymmetrically placed, body leaning sideways and reclining slightly
Lists some signs of weakness in business communication
Signs of Weakness
• Small, controlled movements
• Any form of bowing or bowed posture, using hand to cover face
• Tenseness, vigilance
• Hesitantly standing or sitting forward attentively with feet together on the floor, with arms in lap or in another balanced position
• Playing with an object or nervous shaking of foot or leg
If you want to be taken seriously through business communication what should you do?
To be Taken Seriously
• Be pleasant, but smile less often
• Lower the pitch of your voice and speak with firmness
• Use steady, relaxed frequent eye contact
• Keep head straight and still (avoid tilting to side)
• Maintain a relaxed yet strong stance
• Occasionally, turn your back on others
• Use strong, definite movements
• Point hands upward, place fingertips together
• Initiate firm handshakes
• Videotape yourself using these power behaviors
• Create a mental picture of yourself as a powerful, relaxed person
What is cultural shock?
Culture shock – confusion experienced by visitor to foreign countries when there has been no training in language and customs of country they are visiting
What is formal communication?
Formal Communication—flows along the official paths prescribed by the organization’s chain of command—flow downward, upward, and horizontally
What is downward communication?
Downward Communication-formal messages that flow from managers and supervisors to subordinates—adds to employee satisfaction

Should include
o Job instruction
o Job rational—why a task is important and how it relates to other tasks
o Policy and procedures
o Employee performance appraisals
o Motivation appeals
Can lead to:
o Information overload
o Often in written form
o Usually brief and may omit needed details
o Memos normally do not include the job rational
o Frame of reference differences-between sender and receiver
What is upward communication?
Upward Communication—formal messages that flow upward from subordinates to supervisors and mangers

Can include
o Reports of employee work
o Achievements
o Progress
o Outlines of work problems that need to be solved
o Suggestions for improvements within the department
What is horizontal communication?
Horizontal Communication—messages flow laterally between people of the same rank
o Important for coordinating tasks,
o Solving problems
o Sharing information
o Resolving conflicts
Empowered Teams—teams with the power to make decisions
What is informal communication?
Informal Communication—messages that flow along an informal network commonly called the grapevine—research indicates the grapevine is important
o Type of information the grapevine carries indicates the health of the organization
o Information carried by the grapevine to 75 ti 95 percent accurate
o Information carried by the grapevine travels fast
o People who regularly use the grapevine are more satisfied with their jobs and more committed to the organization
o Effective managers use the grapevine
What is mutual adjustment?
Mutual adjustment—involves horizontal communication between peers who meet face to face—flexible and implemented when needed
How does communication style relate to organizational theories such as bureaucracy, human relations, and systems theories? Human Resources and Theory Y
Human Resources and Douglas McGregor’s Theory Y—
o messages travel up, down and across the organization—
o decision making is spread throughout the organization
o even important ones involve input from employees at all levels
o management listens
o no supplemental upward system is required
o frequent, honest interaction with employees takes place
o atmosphere—one of confidence and trust
o flow of messaged downward is sufficient to satisfy the needs of employees
o decision making is based on messages from all levels of organization
o accuracy and quality of the decisions are improved
What is the traditional model and bureaucratic theoristis?
Traditional Model and Bureaucratic Theorists—I’m the Boss-Bureaucratic Theorists—wanted to improve from top down—Foundation of Bureaucratic Theory—organizational structure—the formal patterns of relationships and roles needed to get tasks accomplished (who works with whom and who reports to whom)—must have a clear division of labor
Division of labor—way and organization parcels out the work to be done(who does what)
What is the human relations model?
Human Relations Model—increase productivity based on conditions
o Number of rest periods
o Time of lunch break
o Length of work day
o TLC=tender loving care
o Employees only allowed to participate in routine decision making

Workers are in relaxed congenial work groups with supervisors who listen to them—are concerned with their needs—makes workers more productive Workers satisfaction with the social and interpersonal relationships they have with their peers significantly influences their productivity, and workers feel substantial pressure from their peers to conform to the norms of their work groups
What is the human resources model?
Human Resources Model—Manager serves as facilitator--gradual shift from human relations model—emphasize both relational communication (open, supportive, friendly) and command communication—mangers are encouraged to trust their employees and permit them to participate in important decisions and in their own development
What is human resources in Today's world called?
Human Resources in Today’s World—called quality control
What is the systems Theory ?
Systems Theory—open systems
o Has flexible boundaries that allow communication to flow easily in and out of the organization
o Boundary spanners—gather useful outside information to help with decision making
o Protect against external threats
o Control the dissemination of information
o Present a good impression to outsiders
What is the System/Contingency Model?
System/Contingency Model—contends there is no best way “best style all depends” on culture, fiedler Theory Z
What is the Contingency Theory Model when dealing with communication?
Contingency Theory—evolved from general system theory—Fred Fiedler—“which management style will be the most effective in a particular situation depends on the degree to which the group situation enables the manager to exert influence—he found task or traditional orientation more effective when manager was moderately liked—powerful, and the tasks were well defined
What is Contingency Theory in Today's World?
Contingency Theory in Today’s World—successful organizations are those whose corporate culture reflects the values of their employees
Give some examples of communication differences in organization models
o Traditional Model—usually written expectations determined by position
o rational,
o task-oriented,
o formal,
o usually written,
o mainly downward
Give some examples of communication differences in organization models
o Human Relations Model
o Basically downward
o Although it is supportive
o TLC
o Feedback form employee and grapevine
Give some examples of communication differences in organization models
o Human Resources Model
o Team-oriented
o Information and feedback flow freely up and down
o Informal communication encouraged
o Communication skills are needed at all levels
o Participative
o Approach to employee management relationships
o Employees take an active role in all decisions
o Big or small
Give some examples of communication differences in organization models
o Systems/Contingency Model
o No single best was to manage
o Communication flexible
Give some examples of communication differences in organization models
o Transformation Model
o Horizontal communication among team members and between teams is essential for the transformational model,
o Upward
o Downward
o Informal communication
What is the Transformation model in communication?
Transformation Model—Today’s global market requires immediate organization flexible and change newest model result of problems that traditional models have experienced trying to survive in today’s business environment—have transformed past models into multiunit or virtual structures
o Multiunit Organization—made up of separate autonomous business under the same holding company—decentralized structure—allows the large parent company to operate with the flexibility of the much smaller businesses
o Virtual Organization—temporary venture among several companies—each with a special expertise or process specialty
o Transformation Model in Today’s World—General Electric—Johnson and Johnson
o Conditional employment
In communication how does the bureaucratic model work?
Bureaucratic model – developed by Max Weber = Top Down, Fayol’s Bridge and Theory X
Theory X = Messages travel downward
Upward communication limited
Fear and distrust of management
Decisions by top management
Faypl’s Bridge bypasses chain of command
1. Division of Labor – tasks divided into highly specialized jobs
2. Rules (SOP)
3. Hierarchy of Authority (Chain of Command)
4. Impersonality
5. Competence- employment based on qualifications; promotions based on performance

**Dysfunctions of bureaucracies
1. Division of labor reduces challenges results in reduced performance, absenteeism, high turnover
2. Too many rules and red tape
3. Info only flows down chain of command
4. Performance is difficult to measure
What is Blind Communication Style?
Blind Communication Style (relates to bureaucracy)
1. Demanding & impatient
2. Controlling,
3. Impersonal
4. Structured & rigid
5. Does not trust others
What is Human Relations in communication?
Human Relations:= TLC and Mayo
1. Hawthorne studies (Mayo)
a. Lighting study – increased productivity because they were being studied.
b. Increased pay for productivity – ratebusters and chiselers
c. Conclusion: Group dynamics and effective management increased productivity
not employer demands or physical conditions
d. Assumptions:
1. Employees motivated by social & psychological needs & by economic
incentives
2. Employees have higher morale & productivity under supportive
management
3. Opens communication channels between levels (informal comm.
acknowledged).
2. Moreno – sociometric technique – people work better with people they have an affinity for
3. Lewin – authoritarian & democratic
4. Carl Rogers- industrial counseling
** Southwest airlines (example)
What is the open Communication style
(Human Relations)
1. Flexible in meeting individual needs.
2. Shares feelings and knowledge willingly
3. Empowers others through team decisions
4. Flexible
5. Careful listeners
6. Friendly trusting
7. Willing to share
8. productive
9. empower others
What is the systems style?
Systems (Senge)
1. Systems thinking- all parts interrelated and affecting each other
2. Personal mastery- personal commitment to vision, excellence and lifelong learning
3. Shared vision- sharing and image of the future you want to realize together
4. Team learning- learning collectively; two brains are smarter than one
5. Mental models- deeply ingrained assumptions that influence personal and organizational views and behaviors
Give examples of the blind communication style realsing that all types of communicaiton are essential because even one person can effect the entire organization
Blind Communication Style
Key word: Authoritarian
Motivation: Over self-confidence
Communicates expectations: Usually, but may just expect you to know.
Handles conflict: Force
Employee appraisal: Mainly criticisms
Motivates by: criticism and punishment
What is the Open Style manager when dealing with communication?
Open Style Manager
Key Word: Team Communication
Motivation: Confidence like of people
Communicates expectations:
Handles conflict: Problem-solving
Employees appraisal: Strengths/weakness
Motivates by: Praise and criticism
What is the closed style when dealing with communication and management?
Closed
Key word: Non-communicator
Motivation: Anxiety or fear
Communicates expectations: seldom
Handles conflict: Avoids it
Employee appraisal: vague review to all
Motivates by: Doesn’t even try
What is the hidden style when dealing with communication?
Hidden
Key word: Disguise
Motivation: Mistrust; social acceptance
Communicates expectations: Positive ones
Handles conflict: Smoothing over it
Employee appraisal: Mainly strengths
Motivates by: Praise and reward