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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nonverbal communication
behavior other than written language
expectancy violations model
a model that suggests that we develop rules or expectations for appropriate nonverbal behavior and react when those expectations are violated
perception checking
skill of asking other observers or the person being observed whether your interpretation of his nonverbal behavior is accurate
artifact
clothing or another element of appearance
kinesics
the study of human movement, gesture, and posture
emblem
a nonverbal cue that has a specific, generally understood meaning in a given culture and may substitute for a word or phrase
illustrator
a nonverbal behavior that accompanies a verbal message and either compliments, contradicts, or accents it
affect display
a nonverbal behavior that communicates emotions
regulator
a nonverbal message that helps to control the interaction or level of communication between people
adaptor
a nonverbal behavior that helps satisfy a personal need and helps a person to adapt or respond to the immediate situation
quasi-courtship behavior
nonverbal actions consciously and unconsciously exhibited when we are attracted to someone
haptics
the study of human touch
touch ethic
a person's own guidelines or standards as to appropriate and inappropriate touch
paralanguage (vocalics)
nonverbal aspects of voice (like pitch, rate, volume, and use of silence)
back-channel cue
a vocal cue that sigals when we want to talk and when we don't
response latency
how long it takes someone to formulate a response to a statement or question in conversation
proxemics
study of how close or far away from people and objects we position ourselves
territoriality
study of how humans use space and objects to communicate occupancy and ownership of space
territorial marker
a thing or action that signifies an area has been claimed
immediacy
feelings of liking, pleasure, and closeness communicated by such nonverbal cues as eye contact, forward lean, touch, and open body orientation
arousal
feelings of interest and excitement communicated by such nonverbal cues as vocal expression, facial expressions, and gestures
dominance
feelings of power, status, and control communicated by such nonverbal cues as relaxed posture, greater personal space, and protected personal space
hearing
the physiological process of decoding sounds
listening
a complex process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages, which involves five steps: selecting, attending, understanding, remembering, and responding
selecting
the process of sorting through various sounds competing for your attention
attending
the process of focusing on a particular sound or message
understanding
the process of assigning meaning to messages
remembering
the process of recalling information that has been communicated
responding
the process of confirming your understanding of a message
emotional noise
a form of communication noise caused by emotional arousal
receiver apprehension
fear of misunderstanding or misinterpreting the messages spoken by others, or not being able to adjust psychologically to messages expressed by others
decentering
stepping away from your own thoughts and attempting to experience the thoughts of another
paraphrasing
checking the accuracy of your understanding by offering a verbal summary of your partner's message
culture
a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that is shared by a group of people and shaped from one generation to the next
co-culture
a culture that exists within a larger cultural context
intercultural communication
communication between or among people who have different cultural traditions
culture shock
feeling of stress and anxiety a person experiences when encountering a culture different from his or her own
worldview
perception shared by a culture or group of people about key beliefs and issues, such as death, God, and the meaning of life, which influences interactions with others; the lens through which people in a given culture perceive the world around them
cultural context
information not explicitly communicated through language, such as environmental or nonverbal cues
high-context culture
culture that derives much information from nonverbal and environmental cues and less information from the words of a message
low-context culture
culture that derives much information from the words of a message and less information from nonverbal and environmental cues
cultural values
that which a given group of people values or appreciates
masculine cultural values
emphasize achievement, assertiveness, heroism, material wealth, and traditional male and female roles
feminine cultural values
emphasize being sensitive towards others and fostering harmonious personal relationships with others
collectivistic culture
a cultural perspective that places a high value on collaboration, teamwork, and group achievement
individualistic culture
a cultural perspective that values individual achievement and personal accomplishments
instrumental orientation
a masculine approach that involves assertiveness and action, in a "me against the world" view of self and reality
expressive orientation
a feminine approach that emphasizes connecting with others and fostering harmonious relationships and community
content dimension
the what of a communication message; the verbal message
relational dimension
the nonverbal elements of a message, such as tone of voice and facial expressions, that convey how the message should be interpreted and provide clues about the state of the relationship between the interactants
ethnocentrism
the belief that your cultural traditions and assumptions are superior to others
stereotype
to place a person or group of persons into an inflexible, all-encompassing category
prejudice
judging someone before you know relevant facts or background information
mindful
to be aware of what you are doing and how you are communicating with others
self-talk
inner speech; communication with the self
egocentric
a preoccupied focus on one's self and one's self-importance
other orientation
focusing on the needs and concerns of others while maintaining one's personal integrity, achieved through the processes of socially decentering and being empathic
social decentering
cognitive process in which we take into account another person's thoughts, values, background, and perspectives
empathy
the process of developing an emotional reaction that is similar to the reaction being experienced by another person
sympathy
to acknowledge that someone may be feeling a certain emotion due to loss or grief; to be compassionate towards someone
adapt
to adjust behavior in accord with what someone else does