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65 Cards in this Set

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An active, complex process that includes being mindful, physically receiving messages, selecting and organizing information, interpreting communication, responding, and remembering.
Being fully engaged in the moment.
Pretending to listen.
A method of clarifying another's meaning or needs by reflecting our interpretation of hir communication back to hir.
Selective llistening
Focusing only on particular parts of a message.
Minimal encouragers
Responses that express interest.
Informational listening
To gain and understad information.
Relational listening
To support a person and maintain a relationship.
Critical listening
To form opinions, make judgments, or evaluate people and ideas.
The 6 forms of nonlistening.
selective listening
defensive listening
literal listening
Constantly turning the topic to yourself.
Defensive listening
Perceiving criticism when none is there.
Listening carefully only to attack.
Literal listening
Listening only to the literal meaning and ignoring the relational meaning.
Obstacles to effective listening.
message overload
message complexity
environmental distractions
lack of effort
not accommodating diverse listening styles
3 ways to improve listening.
be mindful
ask questions
control obstacles
Self disclosure
Intentional sharing of personal info about ourselves that other would be unlikely to figure out.
Over conflict
Conflict expressed directly and in a straightforward manner.
Cover conflict
Conflict that is expressed indirectly. It is more difficult to manage constructively.
Communication climate
The overall feeling or emotional mood between people.
Relational dialectics
Opposing forces or tensions that are normal parts of all relationships. The three relational dialectics are autonomy/connectedness, novelty/predictability, and opnness/closedness.
Relational culture
A private world of rules, understandings, and patterns of acting and interpreting that partners create to give meaning to their relationship; the nucleus of intimacy.
Recognition confirmation and disconfirmation messages...
"You exist." = "Hello."
"You don't exist." = Silence, no eye contact
Acknowledgment confirmation and disconfirmation messages...
"You matter to me." = "We are a team." = "I'm sorry you're hurt."
"You don't matter." = "We are not a team." = "You'll get over it."
Endorsement confirmation and disconfirmation messages...
"What you think is true." = "What you feel is okay." = "I feel the same way."
"You are wrong." = "You shouldn't feel that way." = "Your feeling doesn't make sense."
Pairs of defensive vs. supportive climate creators.
Evaluation vs. Description
Certainty vs. Provisionalism
Strategy vs. Spontaneity
Control vs. Problem Orientation
Neutrality vs. Empathy
Superiority vs. Equality
4 ways to use communication to have healthy climates.
accept and confirm others
accept and confirm yourself
self-disclose when appropriate
respect diversity in relationships
4 ways partners deal with dialiectic tension.
Compromise but not fully satisfy either person.
Making on dialectic important and ignoring the other (even if only temporarily).
Assigning dialectics to a certain area of life or time or subject.
Redefining "contradictory" needs as not really in opposition.
2 ways violence is related to communication.
1. Taunting each other
2. Denying the problem
Construct an assertive message from this:
"A neighbor's barking dog is keeping you awake at night. You have an opportunity to talk with hir about it in the morning."
Hello. Last night your dog was barking for a really long time - until the early morning hours and I was unable to sleep. To me this seems like an example that you don't have concern for your neighbors. I feel a little offended and pretty annoyed.
If the dog keeps barking this late every night, I'm going to do terrible at school and perform poorly at work because I will be so tired. It's not just about me though, other neighbors will start to be bothered by it and you will not be well liked in the neighborhood.
I would like to know if there is anything that can be done about the dog barking.
Construct an assertive message for this:
"A close friend didn't invite you to their birthday bash two weeks ago. You're meeting hir today for lunch."
Hi. So you didn't invite me to your birthday a couple weeks ago. I took that to mean that you don't really consider me a true friend. I'm sad because I care about you and consider you a true friend.
If there is an inconsistency in our feelings about each other it will only cause us both heartache and frustration.
I would like to know what it was that made you decide not to invite me to your birthday, and how you really feel about me.
A group technique for generating possible solutions to a problem. Brainstorming encourages ideas to flow freely without immediate criticism.
Deciding which messages pass through the gates of media that control information flow to consumers.
The cessation of critical, independent thought on the part of a group's members about ideas generated by the group.
Informal rules that guide how members of a group or culture think, feel, act, and interact. Norms define what is normal or appropriate in various situations.
Written or stated rules rather than things that are just expected like norms.
A decision-making method in which all members of a group support a decision.
An error in reasoning.
Personal character
Initial credibility
The expertise and trustworthiness that listeners attribute to a speaker before a presentation begins.
Derived credibility
The expertise and trustworthiness that listeners attribute to a speaker as a result of how the speaker communicates.
Terminal credibility
The cumulative expertise and trustworthiness listeners attribute to a speaker as a result of the speaker's initial derived credibility.
Person who controls the flow of information in media.
Uses and gratifications theory
The theory that people choose to attend to mass communication in order to fulfill personal needs and preferences.
Cultivation theory
The theory that television promotes an inaccurate worldview that viewers nonetheless assume reflects real life.
Mean World Hypothesis
The more TV you watch, the more you believe the world is mean.
Limitations and strengths of groups
- Time is longer.
- Pressure for conformity.
+ Greater resources
+ Greater thoroughness
+ Greater creativity
+ Geater commitment
Types of communication in groups
Task communication
Procedural Communication
Climate Communication
Egocentric Communication
Task communication
focuses on problems.
Procedural Communication
Create order and organization.
Climate Communication
Maintains a constructive climate.
Egocentric Communication
a.k.a. dysfunctional communication. Blocks others and ruins climate, etc.
Types of conflict in groups
Disruptive conflict
Constructive conflict
Disruptive conflict
Interfere with effective work and healthy communication climate.
Constructive conflict
Natural and can help achieve goals.
5 steps for a motivated sequence pattern persuasive speech
1. Attention: Focus listeners' attention.
2. Need: Demonstrate that a real problem exists.
3. Satisfaction: Propose a solution to the demonstrated problem.
4. Visualization: Give listeners a vision of the impact of the solution.
5. Action: Ask listeners to think, feel, or act to bring the proposed solution into being.
2 means by which cultivation occurs.
Mainstreaming and resonance.
Mass communication stabilitzes and homogenizes social perspectives.
Extent to which media portrayals are congruent with personal experience.