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138 Cards in this Set

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Identify critical information
Information about friendly (U.S., allied, and/or coalition) activities, intentions, capabilities, or limitations an adversary seeks in order to gain a military, political, diplomatic, economic, or technological advantage
Threat assessment
Current, relevant threat information is critical in developing appropriate OPSEC protective measures
Vulnerability analysis
An operational or mission-related vulnerability exists when the adversary has the capability to collect indicators, correctly analyze them, and take timely action
Risk assessment
estimate an adversary’s capability to exploit a vulnerability, the potential effects such exploitation will have on operations, and provide a cost-benefit analysis of possible methods to control the availability of CI to the adversary
Measures / Countermeasures
Operations Security measures/countermeasures preserve military capabilities by preventing adversarial exploitation of CI
OPSEC Officer
OPSEC is a command responsibility that is trained for, planned, and executed by the entire command
OPSEC considerations regarding public affairs
The PAO and OPSEC officer should coordinate the release of data relative to the mission or to potentially sensitive activity
Web Risk Assessments
Operations Security officers should review their command’s Web site through the eyes of the adversary, looking for critical information that could reveal sensitive operations, movement of certain assets, personal information about U.S. citizens and employees, and technological data.
EEFI
Key information adversaries likely will inquire about regarding our intentions, capabilities, and activities, in
order to obtain answers critical to their own operational effectiveness
Critical Information
The answers to EEFI can potentially lead to CI
Purpose of Naval Intelligence
The ultimate goal is to provide the commander and his forces the intelligence support needed to prevail in combat
Planning and Direction
Intelligence planning for rapid response to possible crises occurs well ahead of time as part of a command’s overall joint operation planning process
Collection
Collection includes those activities related to the acquisition of data required to satisfy the requirements specified in the collection plan
Processing and Exploitation
During processing and exploitation, raw collected data is converted into forms that can be readily used by commanders, decision makers at all levels, intelligence analysts and other consumers
Analysis and Production
During analysis and production, intelligence is produced from the information gathered by the collection capabilities assigned or attached to the joint force and from the refinement and compilation of intelligence received from subordinate units and external organizations
Dissemination and Integration
During dissemination and integration, intelligence is delivered to and used by the consumer
Evaluation and Feedback
During evaluation and feedback, intelligence personnel at all levels assess how well each of the various types of intelligence operations are being performed
Strategic Intelligence
Required for the formation of policy and military plans at national and international levels
Operational Intelligence
Required for planning operations within regional theaters or areas of operations
Tactical Intelligence
Required for planning and conducting tactical operations at the component or unit level
Defense Joint Intelligence Operations Center
The DJIOC is the lead DOD intelligence organization responsible for integrating and synchronizing military intelligence and national intelligence capabilities
Combatant Command Joint Intelligence Operations Centers
The combatant command JIOCs are the primary intelligence organizations providing support to joint forces at the operational and tactical levels
Joint Task Force Joint Intelligence Support Elements
At the discretion of a subordinate JFC, a JTF JISE may be established during the initial phases of an operations to augment the subordinate joint force J-2 element
PIR – Priority Intelligence Requirement
An intelligence requirement, stated as a priority for intelligence support, that the commander and staff need to understand the adversary or the operational environment
CCIR – Commander Critical Information Requirement
Designed to feed important, time-sensitive information to the commander so he can make a decision that should dramatically affect the fight
Intelligence Oversight and state the publications that govern it
The supervision of Intelligence Agencies, and making them accountable for their actions.
– Executive Order 12333
– DoD Regulation 5240.1-R
– NSA Policy 1-23
– USSID SP0018
Difference between a US citizen and a US person with regards to US Intelligence Oversight.
A citizen of the United States
– An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence
– An unincorporated association with a substantial number of members who are citizens of the U.S. or are aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence
– A corporation that is incorporated in the U.S.
Intelligence preparation of the battlespace environment
The analytical process used by joint intelligence organizations to produce intelligence assessments, estimates and other intelligence products in support of the joint force commander’s decision making process
Mission of Fleet Intelligence Office
Provides the intelligence necessary to plan, build, train, equip, and maintain US naval forces
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) mission requirements and fundamentals.
To facilitate the optimum utilization of all available ISR assets, an ISR CONOPS should be developed in conjunction with operational planning
Intelligence Fusion Cell
Fusion is the process of collecting and examining information from all available sources and intelligence disciplines to derive as complete an assessment as possible of detected activity
OSINT
Open Source Intelligence
ACINT
Acoustic Intelligence
3 examples of Intelligence briefs
Situation briefings
Mission (pre-mission) briefings
Country Brief
Define the role of an Intelligence watch floor
The organizational structure of a subordinate joint force’s intelligence element is determined by the JFC based on the situation and mission
ELF
3 - 30 Hz
SLF
30 - 300Hz
ULF
300 - 3000Hz
VLF
3 - 30kHz
LF
30 - 300kHz
MF
300kHz - 3MHz
HF
3 - 30MHz
VHF
30 - 300MHz
UHF
300 - 3GHz
SHF
3 - 30GHz
EHF
30 - 300GHz
Frequency
The number of cycles that occur in one second. Usually expressed in hertz
Wavelength
(one 360 degree cycle) is the distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next, or between any two similar points on adjacent waves
Ducting
The propagation of radio waves within an atmospheric duct
Refraction
Wave that changes direction when passing from one medium into another medium
Multiplexing
A method for simultaneous transmission of two or more signals over a common carrier
wave. i.e. FDM, TDM
Modulation
Ability to impress intelligence upon a transmission medium, such as radio waves
Demodulation
The removal of intelligence from a transmission medium
Bandwidth
The difference between the highest usable frequency and the lowest usable frequency
Keying
The generating of signals by the interruption or modulation of a steady signal or carrier
Layers
Levels of the atmosphere. IE. Ionosphere, Stratosphere, and Troposphere.
Frequency
The number of cycles over a given period of time
Radio Waves
A form of radiant energy that can neither be seen nor felt that is generated by a transmitter
Propagation
Movement through a medium
Azimuth Angle
Angular measurement in the horizontal plane in a clockwise direction
Elevation Angle
The angle between the horizontal plane and the line of sight
USB – Upper Side Band
The signal components above the carrier frequency
LSB – Lower Side Band
The signal components below the carrier frequency
CW – Continuous Wave
An electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency; and in mathematical analysis of
infinite duration
AM – Amplitude Modulation
A technique used in electronic communication where the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant
FM – Frequency Modulation
A technique used in electronic communication where the frequency of the carrier is varied while its amplitude remains constant
Pulse Repetition Interval PRI
Duration of time between a point on pulse and the identical point on the next pulse
Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF)
– The rate at which pulses are transmitted, given in hertz or pulses per second;
reciprocal of pulse-repetition time
Radio Frequency (RF)
Energy is transmitted to and reflects from the reflecting object
BW – Beam Width
The diameter along any specified line that is perpendicular to the beam axis and intersects it
CW – Continuous Wave
An electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency; and in mathematical analysis
of infinite duration
Pulse Width (PW)
Duration of time between the leading and trailing edges of a pulse
SCAN
Systematic movement of a radar beam to cover a definite pattern or area in space
Bearing
Angle measured clockwise from true north in the horizontal Plane
Azimuth
Angular measurement in the horizontal plane in a clockwise direction
Elevation
The angle between the horizontal plane and the line of sight
Air Search
Detect and determine the position, course, and speed of air targets in a relatively large area. Maximum range of air-search radar can exceed 300 miles, and the bearing coverage is a complete 360-degree circle
Surface Search
Used to detect the presence of surface craft and low flying aircraft and to determine their presence
Fire Control
Usually produce a very narrow, circular beam and is used with fire control systems
OPELINT
Operationally relevant information such as the location, movement, employment, tactics, and activity of foreign noncommunications emitters and their associated weapon systems
TECHELINT
Technical aspects of foreign noncommunications emitters such as signal characteristics, modes, functions, associations, capabilities, limitations, vulnerabilities, and technology levels
Half-Duplex
Involves a shared transmission medium. The shared medium can be used for communication in each direction, but the communication cannot proceed simultaneously
Full Duplex
Allows transmission in two directions simultaneously
Simplex
A simplex mechanism can only transfer data in a single direction
How does Naval Oceanography support the Information Dominance mission?
The Head of the Oceanographic Community serves on a flag panel that oversees corps issues, enables collaboration across communities, and develops a consensus on issues of importance to the corps
Precise Time
The U. S. Naval Observatory is charged with maintaining the DoD reference for Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI)
USNO Master Clock
The DoD common time reference is the U.S. Naval Observatory Master Clock. It is generated at USNO in Washington, D.C. and at the Alternate Master Clock Facility at Schriever AFB in Colorado
GPS
USNO monitors the GPS constellation and provides system timing offsets to 2SOPS, timing data for individual GPS satellites, and time transfer services using GPS
Computer Display Clocks
USNO servers provide a wide variety of web-based time synchronization products including embedded web clocks to display UTC(USNO) on other web pages
TWSTT
The highest precision and accuracy in time dissemination is provided through Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer
(TWSTT). USNO provides operational time transfer and calibration services for TWSTT
Loran – C Timing
USNO monitors the Loran-C system timing performance, providing daily updates of UTC(USNO) - LORAN-C timing and LORAN-C Times of Coincidence
Telephone Time
USNO provides both voice announcements of the time, and services to synchronize systems over telephone modems
NTP – Network Time Protocol
An Internet standard that enables client computers to synchronize to USNO. NTP runs as a client program on a computer
Earth Orientation Products
The latest determinations and predictions for polar motion, UT1-UTC, celestial pole offsets, and long-term Delta T are provided
GPS – Based Products
The latest 24-hour and 48-hour sets of GPS satellite orbits, satellite and receiver clock solutions, earth orientation parameters, and UTGPS (GPS-based UT1-like quantity
VLBI – Based Products
The latest Earth Orientation Parameters derived from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations and correlated data products
EO Information Center
– Information regarding commonly used variables (General Information), Information for GPS Users (GPS User Information), frequently asked questions about Earth Orientation, and format descriptions for data sets (Read Me files).
Productions about Products
Publications providing background material (Explanatory Supplement), documentation of procedures and quality of results (Annual Reports), and technical details regarding the procedures (Scientific Publications).
Software
Supporting software for searching through Earth orientation results and for calculating the rotation matrices between terrestrial and celestial reference frames
Data Services
Sun and Moon rise and set times, Moon phases, eclipses, seasons, positions of solar system objects, and other data
Astronomical Information Center
Background information on common astronomical phenomena, calendars and time, and related topics
Almanacs and Other Publications
Astronomical and navigational almanacs, special publications, research reports
Software Products
Computer almanac for PCs and Macs, and more
Optical/IR Products
Optical/infrared image and catalog products provided by the USNO
VLBI – Based Products
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a technique used by radio astronomers and geodesists to determine the celestial and terrestrial reference frames and to predict the variable orientation of the Earth in three-dimensional space.
Astronomy Information Center
Your one-stop-source for astrometry related information
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)
Operated by the United States National Environmental
Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), supports weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorology research.
Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES)
Operates a constellation of weather satellites in polar orbits around the Earth.
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)
Monitors meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics for the United States Department of Defense.
The National Polar – Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS)
Was to be the United States' next-generation satellite system that would monitor the Earth's weather, atmosphere, oceans, land and near-space environment
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)
Is a joint space mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall
Relative Humidity
A type of humidity that considers the ratio of the actual vapor pressure of the air to the saturation vapor pressure. It is usually expressed in percentage
Occluded Front
Also known as an occlusion, it is a complex front formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front
Tropical Storm
Max sustained winds between 35-64 knots (39-73 mph)
Bathythermograph
Is a small torpedo-shaped device that holds a temperature sensor and a transducer to detect changes in water temperature versus depth
Bioluminescence
is the production and emission of light by a living organism
Space Force Enhancement
Space force enhancement operations increase joint force effectiveness by increasing the
combat potential of that force, enhancing operational awareness, and providing needed joint force support
Space Support
The space support mission area includes space lift operations, satellite operations and reconstitution of space forces.
Space Control
Space control provides freedom of action in space for friendly forces, and when directed, denies it to an adversary
Space Force Application
DOD policy defines space force application as combat operations in, through, and from space to influence the course and outcome of conflict by holding terrestrial targets at risk
The Sun
The sun has the biggest effect on the space environment. Fueled by nuclear fusion, the sun combines or “fuses” 600 million tons of hydrogen each second
Solar Wind
Electrically charged particles (electrons and protons) that stream continuously from the sun form Solar Wind
Solar Cycle
Solar activity is cyclic in nature, following a 11-year cycle which is called the Solar Cycle. Generally there is a
4-year rise to a solar maximum, followed by a gradual 7-year decline to solar minimum
Van Allen Radiation Belts
The Outer and Inner Van Allen Radiation Belts are two concentric, donut-shaped regions of stable, trapped charged particles that exist because the geomagnetic field near the Earth is strong and field lines are closed
Atmospheric Drag
Energy deposited in the Earth’s upper atmosphere by charged particle bombardment heats the atmosphere, causing it to expand outward over a period of time
Low Earth Orbit
A satellite is considered to be in a low earth orbit (LEO) at altitudes between approximately 150 and 800 miles above the Earth's surface
Medium Earth Orbit – Semi-Synchronous Orbit:
An average orbit with an altitude of approximately 10,800 nm results in a period of about 12 hours and is referred to as a semi-synchronous orbit
Polar Orbit
a polar orbit passes over the entire surface of the Earth
Apogee
Point on the orbit farthest
from the center of the Earth
Perigee
Point on the orbit closest
to the center of the Earth
Kennedy Space Center location
Located on Merritt Island, FL
Vandenberg Air Force Base location
Santa Barbara Co, CA
Navy UHF Follow-on
Replaces the aging FLTSATs, Features higher power transmitters, Designed to improve service, reliability, and dependability.
Defense Satellite Communications System
– Provides worldwide, jam-resistant, secure voice and high data rate communications for command and control, crises management, and intelligence data transfer service between the National Command Authority, Joint Chiefs of Staff (NCA/JCS) and the Unified Commanders-in-Chief (CINC
Global Broadcast Service
Derived from commercial direct broadcast technology.
WGS (Wideband Global Satellite)
Key elements of a system that increases the communications capabilities of the U.S. and Australia
Astrometry
Is the branch of astronomy that relates to precise measurements and explanations of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies
The Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP)
Is fitted to describe such irregularities as astronomical errors due to tides, currents, or anything that may impact Earth’s rotation