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188 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Infected eyelash follicle (stye)
Staphylococcus aureus
Conjunctivitis in children, especially associated with swimming, sharing towels
adenovirus
Eyelid swelling, bilateral with muscle pain and eosinophilia
Trichinella spiralis
Unilateral swelling around one eye
Trypanosoma cruzi
Eye ulcers from extended contact wear
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acute otitis media
1) Streptococcus pneumoniae 2) nontypeable Haemophilus 3) Moraxella catarrhalis
Exudative, erythematous pharyngitis and fever >101°F, cervical lymphadenitis
Streptococcus pyogenes
Pharyngitis with fever < 101°F; negative for bacteria
adenovirus
Pharyngitis and extreme fatigue in teen or young adult; abnormal WBCs
EBV
Common cold
rhinovirus (summer/fall) and coronavirus (winter/spring)
Unvaccinated child with pseudomembrane in throat and heart irregularity
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Fever, chills, URT symptoms, severe arthralgias and myalgias between Nov. and March in U.S. and Canada
influenza virus
Repetitive cough with inspiratory whoop, often vomiting (whooping cough)
Bordetella pertussis
Croup
parainfluenza viruses 1 and 2
Pneumonia and/or bronchiolitis in young child (3 mo. to 5 y.o.)
RSV
Mild pneumonia in 5-18 y.o.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae; or Chlamydia pneumoniae
Lobar pneumonia in all age groups
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Aspiration pneumonia
anaerobes including Bacteroides fragilis
Pneumonia with dry cough in AIDS patient
Pneumocystis carinii
Pneumonia with purulent sputum in AIDS patient
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pneumonia in teen with CF
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pneumonia in older male, heavy drinker
likely Legionella pneumophila if environmental source seems likely; might also be Klebsiella pneumoniae (currant jelly sputum)
Pneumonia associated with bird excretions
Chlamydia psittaci
Pneumonia after contact with dust containing bird or bat feces, Ohio/Mississippi River Valleys
Histoplasma capsulatum
Pneumonia associated with dust in desert areas of CA/Southwest U.S.
Coccidioides immitis
Viral meningitis
enteroviruses, some arboviruses, mumps, polio
Meningitis in neonates, esp. after prolonged rupture of membranes
1stStreptococcus agalactiae/ 2nd E. coli/3rd Listeria monocytogenes
Meningitis in babies 6 mo. to 2 y.o., unvaccinated
Haemophilus influenzae
Meningitis in young adult, unresponsive and with cutaneous rash
Neisseria meningiditis
Purulent meningitis in all age groups except neonates
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Meningitis in AIDS patient
Cryptococcus neoformans
Meningitis in transplant patients
Listeria monocytogenes
Meningitis in severe neutropenia
Aspergillus, a mold with acute branched hyphae
Encephalitis in young adults, fatal if not treated promptly
HSV-1
Mosquito-borne encephalitis
Eastern or Western Equine Encephalitis viruses, St. Louis, CA and La Crosse viruses
virus found in sensory ganglia with unilateral reactivation in 1-3 dermatomes
VZV
Virus that causes trigeminal nerve ganglia
HSV-1
Virus latent in nerves S-2, S-3
HSV-2
Produces neurotoxin that causes rigid paralysis
Clostridium tetani
Produces neurotoxin that causes flaccid paralysis
Clostridium botulinum
Produces neurotoxin that causes dysentery and severe headache
Shiga toxin of S. dysenteraie type I
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
JC virus
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
defective measles virus
Prion diseases
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and kuru
Food-poisoning; Vomiting and nausea with no fever 1-6 hours after ingestion of Cream pastries, ham, potato salad
enterotoxin of Staphylococcus aureus
Food-poisoning; Vomiting and nausea with no fever 1-6 hours after ingestion of Fried rice
heat stable exotoxin of Bacillus cereus
Diarrhea and abdominal cramps after eating meat and vegetables, esp. dried foods; 8-16 hr
Heat-labile toxin of Bacillus cereus
Traveler’s diarrhea
ETEC with heat-labile and/or heat-stable toxins
Copious clear diarrhea with mucous flecks after visiting developing country; 1-4 day incub. per
Vibrio cholerae (cholera toxin)
Infantile diarrhea (0 - 2 y.o.); 1-3 day incub. per.
rotavirus
Steatorrheic, foul-smelling diarrhea/ abdominal cramps after camping trip and drinking from stream/ outbreak in daycare center; 1-3 week incub. period
Giardia lamblia
Voluminous watery diarrhea with cramps, flatulence, and weight loss, chronic in AIDS patients
Cryptosporidium parvum
Abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea without pus; may also be assoc HUS (anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure
E. coli O157:H7
Watery diarrhea of infants in developing countries, lasts 2-3 weeks; can become chronic
EPEC
Most common inflammatory diarrhea in U.S., associated with poultry; oxidase + gram - curved rods
Campylobacter jejuni
Diarrhea associated with poultry; oxidase – gram (-) straight rods
Salmonella species
Watery diarrhea, febrile, abdominal cramps; changes in 1-2 days to mucoid stools with or without blood; BMs accompanied by straining and tenesmus; occurs mostly < 10 y.o.
Shigella
Abdominal pain, fever, weight loss generally associated with international travel; mucosal invasion produces flask-shaped ulcers and mucus
Entamoeba histolytica
Antibiotic-associated (clindamycin or ampicillin) diarrhea/ pseudomembranous colitis
Clostridium difficile
Chronic hepatitis leading to cirrhosis
Hepatitis B, B/D, or C; Shistosoma mansoni
Bile duct blockage after surgery, fever, or antibiotics
Ascaris lumbricoides
Acute infectious endocarditis
Staphylococcus aureus
Subacute infective endocarditis in persons with pre-existing heart damage, poor oral hygiene
viridans streptococci
Subacute endocarditis in elderly or those with pre-existing heart condition -
Enterococcus faecalis
Endocarditis in IV drug abusers; likely to involve both left and right heart
Staphylococcus aureus
Enlarged, flabby heart leading to heart failure; associated Central or south America–
Trypanosoma cruzi
Pericarditis or myocarditis
Coxsackie or other enteroviruses; myocarditis also in later stages of Lyme disease
Septicemia and shock, gram + bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus TSST-1, Strepto-coccus pyogenes SPE-A, or peptidoglycan-teichoic acid fragments of gram +
Capillary and small vessel endothelial damage/ vector bite
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
Exposure to animals
Brucella species
· Anemia seen with infections
Paroxysmal febrile disease
Plasmodium species
Pernicious megaloblastic anemia associated with eating fish (from competition for B12)
Diphyllobothrium latum
Microcytic hypochromic anemia from blood loss
hookworms
Polyarticular arthritis in menstruating female
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Intermittent arthritis after bull’s eye rash/ tick bite
Borrelia burgdorferia
Osteomyelitis most common cause of
Staphylococcus aureus except neonates - could be S. agalactiae or enterobacteriaceae
Osteomyelitis In sickle cell patient
Salmonella species
Osteomyelitis in IV drug abusers
S. aureus, P. aeruginosa
Cystitis in most people
Escherichia coli
cystitis in newly sexual active females
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Cystitis/bloody urine/rural Africa
Schistosoma haematobium
Vesicles on genitalia
HSV-2
Genital warts
Human papilloma virus, most common 6 and 11, associated with development of cancer - 16 and 18
Male urethritis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Women - asymptomatic, vaginitis, cervicitis, or PID
Chlamydia trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae
Hard chancre, painless
Treponema pallidum
Soft chancre, painful
Haemophilus ducreyi
Malodorous vaginitis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Pruritic painful vulvovaginitis
Candida albicans
Smelly vaginal discharge
Gardnerella vaginitis
Boils and carbuncles
S. aureus
“lumpy” jaw
Actinomyces israelii
Infected eyelash follicle (stye)
Staphylococcus aureus
Conjunctivitis in children, especially associated with swimming, sharing towels
adenovirus
Eyelid swelling, bilateral with muscle pain and eosinophilia
Trichinella spiralis
Unilateral swelling around one eye
Trypanosoma cruzi
Eye ulcers from extended contact wear
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acute otitis media
1) Streptococcus pneumoniae 2) nontypeable Haemophilus 3) Moraxella catarrhalis
Exudative, erythematous pharyngitis and fever >101°F, cervical lymphadenitis
Streptococcus pyogenes
Pharyngitis with fever < 101°F; negative for bacteria
adenovirus
Pharyngitis and extreme fatigue in teen or young adult; abnormal WBCs
EBV
Common cold
rhinovirus (summer/fall) and coronavirus (winter/spring)
Unvaccinated child with pseudomembrane in throat and heart irregularity
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Fever, chills, URT symptoms, severe arthralgias and myalgias between Nov. and March in U.S. and Canada
influenza virus
Repetitive cough with inspiratory whoop, often vomiting (whooping cough)
Bordetella pertussis
Croup
parainfluenza viruses 1 and 2
Pneumonia and/or bronchiolitis in young child (3 mo. to 5 y.o.)
RSV
Mild pneumonia in 5-18 y.o.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae; or Chlamydia pneumoniae
Lobar pneumonia in all age groups
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Aspiration pneumonia
anaerobes including Bacteroides fragilis
Pneumonia with dry cough in AIDS patient
Pneumocystis carinii
Pneumonia with purulent sputum in AIDS patient
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pneumonia in teen with CF
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pneumonia in older male, heavy drinker
likely Legionella pneumophila if environmental source seems likely; might also be Klebsiella pneumoniae (currant jelly sputum)
Pneumonia associated with bird excretions
Chlamydia psittaci
Pneumonia after contact with dust containing bird or bat feces, Ohio/Mississippi River Valleys
Histoplasma capsulatum
Pneumonia associated with dust in desert areas of CA/Southwest U.S.
Coccidioides immitis
Viral meningitis
enteroviruses, some arboviruses, mumps, polio
Meningitis in neonates, esp. after prolonged rupture of membranes
1stStreptococcus agalactiae/ 2nd E. coli/3rd Listeria monocytogenes
Meningitis in babies 6 mo. to 2 y.o., unvaccinated
Haemophilus influenzae
Meningitis in young adult, unresponsive and with cutaneous rash
Neisseria meningiditis
Purulent meningitis in all age groups except neonates
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Meningitis in AIDS patient
Cryptococcus neoformans
Meningitis in transplant patients
Listeria monocytogenes
Meningitis in severe neutropenia
Aspergillus, a mold with acute branched hyphae
Encephalitis in young adults, fatal if not treated promptly
HSV-1
Mosquito-borne encephalitis
Eastern or Western Equine Encephalitis viruses, St. Louis, CA and La Crosse viruses
virus found in sensory ganglia with unilateral reactivation in 1-3 dermatomes
VZV
Virus that causes trigeminal nerve ganglia
HSV-1
Virus latent in nerves S-2, S-3
HSV-2
Produces neurotoxin that causes rigid paralysis
Clostridium tetani
Produces neurotoxin that causes flaccid paralysis
Clostridium botulinum
Produces neurotoxin that causes dysentery and severe headache
Shiga toxin of S. dysenteraie type I
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
JC virus
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
defective measles virus
Prion diseases
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and kuru
Food-poisoning; Vomiting and nausea with no fever 1-6 hours after ingestion of Cream pastries, ham, potato salad
enterotoxin of Staphylococcus aureus
Food-poisoning; Vomiting and nausea with no fever 1-6 hours after ingestion of Fried rice
heat stable exotoxin of Bacillus cereus
Diarrhea and abdominal cramps after eating meat and vegetables, esp. dried foods; 8-16 hr
Heat-labile toxin of Bacillus cereus
Traveler’s diarrhea
ETEC with heat-labile and/or heat-stable toxins
Copious clear diarrhea with mucous flecks after visiting developing country; 1-4 day incub. per
Vibrio cholerae (cholera toxin)
Infantile diarrhea (0 - 2 y.o.); 1-3 day incub. per.
rotavirus
Steatorrheic, foul-smelling diarrhea/ abdominal cramps after camping trip and drinking from stream/ outbreak in daycare center; 1-3 week incub. period
Giardia lamblia
Voluminous watery diarrhea with cramps, flatulence, and weight loss, chronic in AIDS patients
Cryptosporidium parvum
Abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea without pus; may also be assoc HUS (anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure
E. coli O157:H7
Watery diarrhea of infants in developing countries, lasts 2-3 weeks; can become chronic
EPEC
Most common inflammatory diarrhea in U.S., associated with poultry; oxidase + gram - curved rods
Campylobacter jejuni
Diarrhea associated with poultry; oxidase – gram (-) straight rods
Salmonella species
Watery diarrhea, febrile, abdominal cramps; changes in 1-2 days to mucoid stools with or without blood; BMs accompanied by straining and tenesmus; occurs mostly < 10 y.o.
Shigella
Abdominal pain, fever, weight loss generally associated with international travel; mucosal invasion produces flask-shaped ulcers and mucus
Entamoeba histolytica
Antibiotic-associated (clindamycin or ampicillin) diarrhea/ pseudomembranous colitis
Clostridium difficile
Chronic hepatitis leading to cirrhosis
Hepatitis B, B/D, or C; Shistosoma mansoni
Bile duct blockage after surgery, fever, or antibiotics
Ascaris lumbricoides
Acute infectious endocarditis
Staphylococcus aureus
Subacute infective endocarditis in persons with pre-existing heart damage, poor oral hygiene
viridans streptococci
Subacute endocarditis in elderly or those with pre-existing heart condition -
Enterococcus faecalis
Endocarditis in IV drug abusers; likely to involve both left and right heart
Staphylococcus aureus
Enlarged, flabby heart leading to heart failure; associated Central or south America–
Trypanosoma cruzi
Pericarditis or myocarditis
Coxsackie or other enteroviruses; myocarditis also in later stages of Lyme disease
Septicemia and shock, gram + bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus TSST-1, Strepto-coccus pyogenes SPE-A, or peptidoglycan-teichoic acid fragments of gram +
Capillary and small vessel endothelial damage/ vector bite
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
Exposure to animals
Brucella species
· Anemia seen with infections
Paroxysmal febrile disease
Plasmodium species
Pernicious megaloblastic anemia associated with eating fish (from competition for B12)
Diphyllobothrium latum
Microcytic hypochromic anemia from blood loss
hookworms
Polyarticular arthritis in menstruating female
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Intermittent arthritis after bull’s eye rash/ tick bite
Borrelia burgdorferia
Osteomyelitis most common cause of
Staphylococcus aureus except neonates - could be S. agalactiae or enterobacteriaceae
Osteomyelitis In sickle cell patient
Salmonella species
Osteomyelitis in IV drug abusers
S. aureus, P. aeruginosa
Cystitis in most people
Escherichia coli
cystitis in newly sexual active females
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Cystitis/bloody urine/rural Africa
Schistosoma haematobium
Vesicles on genitalia
HSV-2
Genital warts
Human papilloma virus, most common 6 and 11, associated with development of cancer - 16 and 18
Male urethritis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Women - asymptomatic, vaginitis, cervicitis, or PID
Chlamydia trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae
Hard chancre, painless
Treponema pallidum
Soft chancre, painful
Haemophilus ducreyi
Malodorous vaginitis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Pruritic painful vulvovaginitis
Candida albicans
Smelly vaginal discharge
Gardnerella vaginitis
Boils and carbuncles
S. aureus
“lumpy” jaw
Actinomyces israelii