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192 Cards in this Set

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Common carriage

Private carriage
common- transport of cargo or passengers as a result of advertising

private- transport of cargo or passengers to a select few customers.
Limitations on Commercial license without IFR Rating
can't carry passengers on XC flights over 50 NM or at night
What must you have in your possession to be PIC
Photo ID, valid certificate, current medical
How many days do you have to notify FAA of change in permanent address?
30 days
If certificate is lost/destroyed, what would you need to do to be able to fly?
An app for replacement is made by letter of Dept of Transportation, FAA, and you may obtain a FAX from the FAA confirming that it was issued. The fax can be the certificate for 60 days pending receipt of a new cert.
To be PIC in high performance, what flight experience must be met?
logged ground and flight training in high-performance aircraft of simulator, and received endorsement in logbook
To be PIC in pressurized aircraft, what requirements must be met?
logged ground and flight training, and an endorsement.
To be PIC in tail-wheel aircraft, what requirements must be met?
logged flight training, and an endorsement
When are type ratings required?
Large aircraft (gross weight over 12.5K), except lighter than air
Turbojet airplanes
Other aircraft specified by FAA
When can you log Second in Command?
when the aircraft requires 2 pilots, and you are qualified for the SIC requirements, and you have all the ratings for the aircraft.
When can you log "night" flight
Between the end of civil twilight, and beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the American Air Almanac
What are the requirements to be current as a Comm. Pilot?
Biannual,
To carry passengers- 3 T/O and landings within past 90 days (if the flight is at night, they must be done at night to a full stop, in the same category, class, and type (if type is required))
What medical cert is required for commercial pilots? What is that duration?
A 2nd class medical is required to exercise commercial pilot privileges. The duration is 12 calendar months
Is a commercial pilot required to log all flight time?
No, only the ones used to meet requirements for a certificate or currency.
Which document is required to be displayed to both passengers and crew?
the Airworthiness certificate or special flight authorization must be displayed at the cabin or cockpit entrance.
How can you tell if your aircraft has a Mode C transponder?
Reference current weight and balance equipment list
Limits for Normal/Utility category
normal- +3.8 G's

Utility- +4.4 G's
Are airplane flight manuals (AFM) required to be on board all aircraft?
Yes, or if applicable, any combination of approved manual, markings, and placards
What are Special Flight Permits, and when are they necessary? How do you obtain?
When aircraft does not meet airworthiness requirements, but its safe for a specific flight. eg flying to a base for repairs, delivering aircraft, evacuating aircraft, etc. It can be obtained from the FSDO
Common Carriage
Refers to carriage of person or porperty as a result of:
1. Holding out or a willingness to
2. From place to place
3. For compensation
Holding out
Implies offering the public the carriage of persons or property for hire by:
1. Signs or ads
2. salespersons or agents
3. gaining a reputation to serve all (even if its not successful)
4. Even if its certain types of people, it is still common carriage.
Private Carriage
1. Carrying persons or property for a select clientele without holding out.
2. Has few select long term customers
3. Number of customers must be small, or it can imply willingness to contract anybody
Examples of Private Carriage
1. Carriage of operators own employees
2. Carriage of members of club
3. Carriage where the customer seeks out the operator and enters into a contract
What is the definition of a high performance aircraft
It has an engine with more than 200 HP
When can you fly with inop equipment?
1. It is placarded and
2. Either on the MEL or not required
What must be done when a piece of equipment is changed?
Change the weight and balance and equipment lists.
How long does an airworthiness certificate remain valid
as long as the maintenance is preformed and the aircraft is registered in the US
What are required maintenance on aircraft? What can be substituted?
Annual

The 100 Hr inspection only needs to be done if aircraft is for hire

Annual inspection is acceptable as 100 Hr inspection also
When can an aircraft exceed 100 hrs before inspection?
On the way to inspection facility, an aircraft can fly up to 10 hours past 100 hr limit. The excess time is counted as time toward the next 100 hour.
What is preventative maintenance? Who can preform it?
Simple stuff like oil change, wheel bearing lubrication, hydraulic fluid refill.

It can be done by certified pilot with at least a private pilot certificate, and the aircraft is not in use for air carrier operations.
What are Airworthiness Directives?
Medium used by the FAA to notify aircraft owners of unsafe conditions. They can be emergency in nature or require compliance within a longer period of time.
What are Radar Weather Reports (SD)?
includes type, intensity, and location of eco top general areas of precipitation.
What are two major classifications of t-storms?
Air mass t-storm: occur at random in unstable air, and last for an hour or two.
Steady state t-storm: Usually found in lines, last several hours, and dump heavy rain and hail
Where is wind shear likely to occur?
It can occur any level of atmosphere, but especially in:
a. low level temp inversions
b. frontal zone or t-storms
c. Clear air turbulence with a jet stream
How are flight controls operated?
Rod or cable system
What do the flaps do?
Increase lift and drag, permits slower airspeed at steeper angles of descent, and may shorten takeoff distances
Describe a typical wing flap system
The Cessna has a single-slot type flap system which extends at 10/20/30 degree intervals. A 15 amp push-to-reset circuit breaker protects the flap circuit
Spoilers
They are on the upper area of the wing, which cause the wing to slow down in flight as well as on the ground when lifted up.
What are some speeds that are not marked on the face of the airspeed indicator?
Maneuvering Speed (Va)
Landing gear operating speed (Vlo)
Landing gear extended speed (Vle)
How does the VSI work?
There is an aneroid inside a case, both are vented through the static source, but the case has a smaller hole so that it changes slower than aneroid. As the aneroid expans and contracts, it moves the levers.
What are hydraulic equipment?
Retractable landing gear
Emergency hand pump (extends gear in case of hydraulic failure)
Hydraulically actuated break on each main gear
The air/oil nose gear shock strut
What provides power to landing gear?
Electrically-driven hydraulic power pack, located behind the firewall between the pilot's and co-pilots rudders
How is the gear locked in the down position?
Mechanical down locks
How is the landing gear locked in the UP position?
Positive up pressure is maintained by the hydraulic power pack (about 1,000 - 1,500 PSI)
Is accidental gear retraction prevented on the ground?
Pressure on nosewheel electronically prevents operation of landing gear system.
What type of landing gear warning system is used?
If the manifold pressure is reduced to less than 12 inches at low altituted, with the master switch on and gear up, there will be a warning sound
What is the time needed for landing gear operation?
5-7 Seconds
Can the hand operated pump retract landing gear?
nope
Describe the braking system
Hydraulic disc breaks on main gears
How do the following guages work?
Oil Temperature
Oil Pressure
Cylinder Head Temperature
Tachometer
Manifold Pressure
Fuel pressure
Oil temp- electrically powered from aircraft electrical system
Oil pressure- Has a direct oil line from engine connected to gauge
Cylinder head temp- Electrically powered
Tachometer- Engine driven mechanically
Manifold pressure- Direct reading of
Fuel pressure- indicates fuel pressure to the carburetor
What does carburetor do? How does carb heat work?
mixes fuel and air in correct proportions.
Carburetor heat allows outside heat to go through tubes around the exhaust muffler to heat up the air before entering the carburetor
What is fuel injection and its advantages?
Fuel injection replaces the carburator, where fuel is directed directly into the cylinders.
Advantages: reduction in evaporative icing
Better fuel flow
Faster throttle response
Precise control
What are disadvantages of fuel injection?
Difficulty starting hot engine
Vapor locks during ground operations on hot days
Problems with restarting an engine that quits
What is vapor lock?
Fuel vapor and/or air collect in different sections of fuel system. Fuel may boil in the lines, and interferes with normal operations of valves, pumps, etc. Other causes can be low fuel pressure or excessive turbulence.
What are turbochargers?
They compress thin air and provide pressurized air to the engine, and a turbine is driven by exhaust gases of the engine to drive the compressor.
Cowl flaps
Slots located on the engine cowling (covering of engine) to allow the pilot to control the operating temperature of the engine by regulating the amount of air circulating within the engine compartment. They may be manually or electrically activated and allow for a variety of flap positions.
When are cowl flaps used?
Normally, cowl flaps are open during starting of engine, taxiing, takeoff and high powered climb.
They are closed during descends, approaches, and engine-out practice
Service Ceiling
Altitude at which the aircraft's maximum rate of climb would be no more than 100 fpm
Climb propeller
1. Low pitch
2. Less drag
3. Higher RPM, so more horse power
4. Increases performance during t/o and climb, but decreases during cruise.
Cruise propeller
1. Higher pitch, more drag
2. Lower RPM, less horsepower capability
3. Decrease performance during t/o and climb, but increases efficiency during cruise
Variable pitch prop.
You can vary the angle of blades to maintain constant engine RPM as you climb/descend
Propeller control
Regulates propeller pitch, and engine RPM for a given flight condition
What is desired propeller setting during take off?
Low pitch and high RPM, because it allows for the maximum amount of fuel to be converted into heat energy.
Can other type of fuel be used if specified grade is not available?
Only the next higher up, but it is not desirable. Refer to manufacturer's instructions.
What are colors of fuel grades?
80-red
100-Green
100LL- Blue
Turbine- Colorless
What is function of manual primer?
It draws fuel from strainer and injects it to cylinder intake ports for quicker, more efficient engine start.
Where are drain valves located?
At the bottom of each wing and under fuel selector valve. A fuel strainer drain is under the access panel on the right side of engine cowling.
How is fuel quantity measured?
Float type fuel quantity transmitter and one electric fuel quantity indicator measure fuel quantity for each tank.
Are fuel quantity guages accurate?
Only when empty, other than that, always check for accuracy visually
Oil system
aircraft engine lub and oil for propeller governer is supplied from a resivoir at the bottom of the engine, capacity 8 qts
What are minimum and maximum oil capacities?
5-8 qts
What are min and max oil temp and pressure?
temp: 100 - 245 degrees F
Pressure- 25 psi for idling, 60-90 PSI green arc, and 115 PSI red arc
What are the types of engine oil?
Mineral oil- Contains no additives for new engines or recent overhauls
Describe electrical system
28 volt, direct-current system powered by 60 amp alternator and 24 volt battery
Where is the battery?
aft of the rear cabin wall
What is a bus bar?
Interfaces the electrical system with various electrical accessories such as radios, lights, etc. A bus bar makes aircraft wiring less complex. Fuses/circuit breakers are incorporated into bus bar
What does the voltage regulator do?
Controls the rate of charge to the battery bay stabilizing the generator or alternator output.
Does the aircraft have an external power source receptacle (receiver)?
Yes, behind a door on the left side of the fuselage aft of the baggage compartment.
What type of ignition system does your airplane have?
two engine driven mags (provides better performance and safety), and two spark plugs per cylinder. It is independent from electrical system, but must be actuated by external means to produce current.
How does the pilot control temperature?
Mix the outside air (cabin air control) with heated air (cabin heat control) in a manifold near the cabin firewall.
What are the advantages of pressurized aircraft?
Allows them to fly higher, better fuel economy, higher speed, and avoid bad weather/turbulence.
Typically maintains cabin pressure of 8,000' and prevents rapid changes of cabin altitude
Cabin pressure regulator
Controls pressure to a selected value in isobaric range
Cabin air pressure safety valve
Consists of the following:
1. Pressure relief valve- prevents cabin pressure from exceeding a predetermined differential pressure above ambient pressure.
2. Vacuum relief valve- prevents ambient pressure from exceeding cabin pressure by allowing external air to enter the cabin when the ambient pressure exceeds cabin pressure
Dump valve- cockpit control which dumps cabin air into atmosphere
Cabin air pressure instrumentation
Cabin differential pressure gauge-indicates difference between inside and outside pressure. Should be monitored to ensure that the cabin does not exceed maximum allowable differential pressure.
Cabin altimeter- check on system performance.
Or, if they are combined into one, it is called the "cabin rate-of-climb"
What types of systems are used in prevention and elimination of airframe ice?
Pneumatic- inflatable boots at the leading edge of wings
Hot air- (common on turboprop) where heat from exhaust is directed to the leading edges of wings
What types of systems are utilized in prevention and elimination of propeller ice?
Electrically heated boots- Heats up ice from below and thrown off by centrifugal force.
Fluid system- Pump supplies fluid (such as alcohol) to a device in the propeller spinner which distributes fluid by centrifugal force.
What types of systems are utilized in prevention and elimination of windshield ice?
Fluid system- sprays de-ice fluid on windshield.
Electrical system- heating elements embedded
Static discharges
Little antennas on trailing edges of control surfaces which reduce radio interference from precipitation static.
Spin recovery
If no manufactuerer's recomended procedures-
1. idle power
2. Ailerons neutral
3. full opposite rudder
4. positive brisk straightforward movement of elevator control forward of the neutral position to break stall
5. neutralize rudder after rotation stops
6.apply back-elevator pressure to level flight
Why is a rear CG bad for spin recovery?
It will cause a "flat" spin, where the centrifugal force will pull the tail out from the axis of the spin, making nose down recovery impossible.
What is the load factor of a spin?
Slightly above 1G, as the airplane spins within 2 knots of stalling speed
Emergency checklist
should be consulted AS SOON as situation permits
Procedures for partial power loss
1. Maintain best glide speed.
2. Select emergency landing spot
3. Check carb heat
4. Check fuel, and fuel selector valve.
5. Check mixture
6. Check if primer is locked
7. Check the mags in 3 positions
Procedure for engine failure on takeoff
1. throttle idle
2. apply breaks
3. retract flaps
4. set mixture to idle cut-off
5. ignition and master- OFF
Procedure for engine failure en-route
Establish Vglide - 73-75 KIAS
Carb heat- ON
Fuel selector - BOTH
Mixture- RICH
Turn ignition to start
Check if primer is in and locked
If forced landing imminent, what are the procedures?
Establish 75 KIAS
scan for landing spot, attempt restart, Squawk 7700
Transmit mayday message on 121.5
Begin spiral down over approach end of selected landing site
Complete forced landing checklist on final approach
Immediately before touchdown on forced landing, what should be completed?
65KIAS with flaps down, Mixture CUTOFF, fuel selector valve OFF, Ignition switch OFF
Select landing gear down or up, depending on terrain
Set wing flaps to 30 degrees
Make sure doors are unlatched
Master OFF, Make touchdown with tail slightly low, Apply breaks heavily
If there is engine failure, what is the glide ratio for best glide speed?
600' per 1 NM
For emergency landing, when do you land with gear up, and when with gear down?
Gear up when there is soft terrain with ample stopping space.
Gear down when in rugged terrain, trees, and high sink rate to provide cushion for cabin.
Procedures for engine failure over water, beyond glide distance to land?
Squawk 7700, and broadcast on 121.5, Jettison/secure heavy objects, Keep LANDING GEAR UP, Flaps 20-30 degrees. Set power to establish 300fpm and 60 KIAS. Land parallel to heavy sea swells when in light wind, and approach into the wind when in high wind. Open doors prior to touchdown
Initiate touchdown in level flight. Prior to touchdown, protect body w/ life vest
Detonation
Explosion of fuel in cylinder (instead of burning smoothly). Caused by high power settings, it can lead to failure of piston, cylinder, valves, overheat engine, roughness, or loss of power.
Causes of detonation
Lower grade fuel
High manifold pressure with low RPM
High power setting with lean mixture
Extended ground operations or steep climbs where cylinder cooling is reduced.
Action taken if detonation or preignition suspected?
Make sure proper fuel is used
Open cowl flaps uif on ground
During takeoff and initial climb, use enriched fuel mixture, as well as shallower climb
Avoid extended, high power, steep climbs
Monitor engine instruments
Preignition
Occurs when fuel ignites prior to normal ignition event. Usually caused by hot spot in chamber. Can cause loss of power, and high engine temperature, and may cause severe engine damage.
What should be done if engine begins to run rough in rain?
This means air filter is saturated with water. You may use carb heat as an alternate source of air.
When should the Aux pump be used if engine-driven fuel pump failed?
In high wing aircraft, gravity will provide sufficient fuel flow for level or descending flight. If failure occurs in a climb, or fuel pressure falls below .5PSI, then the aux pump should be used.
What is spark plug fouling and what can alleviate it?
It is when you operate on an excessively rich mixture, and carbon deposits in the cylinders (causing preignition). You can alleviate it by using the right mixture setting.
What if oil pressure is low but temperature is normal?
Usually caused by insufficient oil, but if the temp continues to remain normal, it could be a clogged oil pressure relief valve or gauge malfunction
What if oil pressure is low, and oil temp is high?
Caused by insufficient oil, engine failure is imminent, reduce throttle and land as soon as possible, using minimum power.
Procedure for engine fire on ground
Continue attempt to start, as a start will cause flames and excess fuels be sucked back through the carb, and if engine starts, increase rpm for a few seconds and turn off
If engine doesn't start- Set throttle to FULL, and mixture to IDLE CUTOFF and continue to try to start the engine to put out fire by vacuum. If fire continues- master OFF, Ignition OFF, fuel selector valve OFF, extinguish
Procedure for engine fire in flight
Mixture- IDLE CUTOFF
Fuel selector- OFF
Master-OFF
Cabin heat and air vents OFF, overhead vents ON
Establish 105 KIAS and increase descend.
Execute forced landing checklist
Electrical fire in aircraft
Check circuit breakers, avionics, and instruments to locate problem, and if you cant solve it-
Turn master OFF
Avionics OFF
All other switches except ignition OFF
Close all air vents and use fire extinguisher
Cabin fire procedure in flight
Master- OFF
Close air/heat vents
Use fire extinguisher
Land ASAP
Procedure for wing fire in flight
Navigation lights OFF
Strobe light OFF
Pitot heat OFF
Initiate a side slip maneuver to avoid flames from getting to the fuel tank and cabin area, land ASAP
Indications of Carb Ice
Loss of RPM or manifold pressure (in variable pitch prop)
2 Types of decompression
Explosive decompression- When cabin pressure decreases faster than lungs can decompress (taking less than 1/2 second)
Rapid decompression- Change in cabin pressure where lungs decompress faster than cabin.
Dangers of decompression
Hypoxia
Being blown out of airplane
Evolved gas decompression sickness (the bends)
Exposure to wind blast and extreme cold
When would an emergency descent procedure be necessary? And what procedure
Necessary when there is a fire, loss of pressure, or other reasons.
1. Reduce power to idle
2. Replace propelelr control in low pitch, high RPM (acts as aerodynamic brake)
3. Extend flaps, gear as quickly as practical for full drag
4. Establish 30-45 degree bank for clearing area below
What happens when pitot tube and drain hole blocked? Only pitot tube??
If both pitot tube and drain hole blocked, then airspeed indicator is altimeter.

If only pitot tube blocked, then airspeed is 0
What instruments can be relied on in case of vacuum failure?
Turn and slip/turn coordinator- Bank info
Magnetic compass- bank info
Airspeed- Pitch info
Altimeter- Pitch info
VSI- Pitch info
Are there backups to vacuum systems?
Some aircraft have electrical vacuum pump backup, and some have a parallel vacuum system
Procedure for resetting circuit breaker
Allow it to cool for 2 minutes after it pops out, then reset. If it pops out again, do not reset again.
If positive gear down indication not received, what action is recommended?
Check if master is ON
Check that landing gear and Gear Pump circuit breakers are in
Check both Landing Gear position indicators by using the "Press-To-Test" feature and rotating dimming shutter
Procedure if landing gear will not extend
Check if master is ON
Check landing gear lever is DOWN
Check gear pump and landing gear circuit breakers are in
Pump emergency handle until heavy resistance is encountered
Check gear down light is ON
Secure pump handle
What happens when there is a flat main landing gear tire?
Establish normal approach with full flaps
Touchdown on the good tire first and keep aircraft off flat tire as long as possible.
Use breaking on good wheels
What if nose gear is unsafe or flat?
Complete before landing checklist
Shift weight to the rear. Set flaps to 30. Unlatch all doors. Master an avionics OFF after committing to landing. Touchdown with tail low
Mixture- IDLE CUTOFF. Ignition- OFF. Fuel selector- OFF
Hold nose off as long as possible
After landing, evacuate aircraft ASAP
What are bad conditions to taxi in a retractable gear aircraft?
Slush, snow, or ice covered taxiways because the ice can freeze in gear system components. Be sure to recycle landing gear on climb out 2-3 times.
What are procedures for asymmetrical flap emergency?
Use opposite rudder and aileron to maintain control. Remain at high airspeed on approach to avoid asymmetrical flap stall.
What factors should be considered when carrying survival gear?
climate and terrain
Procedure for loss of elevator control
Extend gear
Set flaps for 10
Set trim for level flight
Use throttle and elevator trim to establish 70 KIAS
Maintain that trim, and use power to adjust glide angle. At landing flare, trim should be adjusted full noseup and power reduced, at touchdown, close the throttle
What is required if aircraft for hire is over water and beyond power-off gliding distance?
Flotation gear readily available for each occupant and at least 1 pyrotechnic signaling device
What can be used from the aircraft to aid in survival?
Compass
Gasoline
Oil to send smoke signals
Seat upholstery for clothes
Wiring for string
Battery to ignite fuel
How is performance decreased in less dense air?
Less air for engine to take in
Less air for propeller
Less force on airfoil
Relative humidity
Amount of water vapor in atmosphere as a percentage of maximum amount the air can hold (varies with temperature)
Considerations for landing at high-elevation airports
For the same IAS, the TAS is faster, resulting in faster ground speed, and it means longer landing roll, and greater distance to clear objects.
Induced drag
created by the production of lift, and decreases with airspeed
What is service ceiling, and will a plane always be able to reach it?
It is the maximum density altitude where the rate of clime will produce a 100 fpm climb at maximum weight. A plane may not be able to reach it depending on density altitude.
"Absolute ceiling"
where climb is no longer possible
Power loading
Expressed in pounds per HP, and obtained by dividing total weight by rated hp of the engine. It is significant in t/o and climb capabilities.
Wing loading
Expressed in pounds per square foot and obtained by dividing total weight of airplane in pounds by the wing area (including ailerons) in square feet. It determines landing speed.
Maximum Range/ Maximum Endurance
Maximum range- the max distance an airplane can fly for a given fuel supply, and obtained by the maximum lift/drag ratio.
Max endurance- Max amount of time an airplane can fly for a given fuel supply, obtained at the point of minimum power required.
"Flight in the region of normal command" is when..
a higher airspeed requires a higher power setting, and a lower airspeed requires lower.
"Flight in the region of reverse command" means..
A higher airspeed requires a lower power setting, and a lower airspeed requires a higher power setting to hold altitude. (eg in low airspeed, high pitch attitude for short field landing, or takeoff out of ground effect without the right airspeed)
Weight's effect on a/c performance?
Higher liftoff and landing speed and roll required (slow acceleration/deceleration)
Why does manufacturer provide various manifold pressure/prop settings for a given power output?
To give a choice between operating aircraft at best efficiency or best power/speed condition.
How to lean mixture?
Lean it until power peaks, then slowly continue to lean it until engine runs rough, then enrich for a smooth engine.
Effects on a forward CG or aft CG
For forward CG:
Higher stall speed (due to increased wing loading)
Slower cruise speed
More stable
For aft cg- all opposite
Maximum allowable zero fuel weight
Maximum ramp weight
LEMAC
max allowable zero fuel weight- max weight for aircraft not including fuel
Max rump weight- total weight and fuel (greater than takeoff weight because fuel will be burned during taxi/runup
LEMAC- leading edge of the mean aerodynamic chord.
Payload
Useful Load
Payload- Weight of occupants, cargo, baggage
Useful load- Weight of occupants, cargo, baggage and usable fuel and drainable oil
Simple calculation of CG if some weight is shifted
(Weight shifted x Distance moved) / Gross Weight = inches the cg moved
RMI Needle
Needle that uses ADF or VOR and gyro compass and indicates bearing with respect to heading of a/c (Just one arrow pointing, no courseline information)
How is course sensitivity checked by VOR?
Number of degrees of change of course when you rotate OBS from center to the last dot on either side should be 10-12 degrees
How do you find a ADF Magnetic bearing?
MH+RB=MB
ADF Homing/tracking
Homing= Fly an aircraft on a heading required to keep ADF needle on zero until station is reached
Tracking= Fly a straight geographic path inbound or outbound from an NDB
Entry and departure procedures for airports without tower
Enter pattern in level flight abeam middle of the runway. Depart straight out or at 45 degree angle from the runway in the direction of the traffic pattern
Traffic pattern altitude in class D for large or turbine powered aircraft
1,500 feet
Procedure for landing in towered airport without radio
Squawk 7600
Determine direction and flow of traffic
Join traffic pattern and wait for light signals
Daytime, ackn by rocking wings, and nighttime, ackn by flashing landing or nav lights
When a control tower in class D closes, what happens to the lower limit of controlled airspace?
It becomes Class E at 700 feet.
What does it mean if the rotating beacon is on during the day?
The airport is IFR, but that is not regulatory in nature.
Runway Markings-
Runway designators
Runway aiming point
Runway touchdown zone markers
Runway side stripe markings
Designators- numbers
Aiming point- white bars at 1000'
Touchdown zone markers- 500' incremented markers
Runway side stripe markings- White stripes on edge of runway
Pilots carrying passengers for hire after 30 mins must use oxygen at this altitude.
What is 10,000 feet
Continuous Flow oxygen mask
Continuous flow- can maintain blood oxygen nearly normal up to 25K'
e.g. dixie cup mask that the passengers are supplied with. The re-breather bag is supplied with continuous oxygen, and it collects in the breather bag, which is mixed with exhaled air.
Oxygen masks:
Pressure-Demand
Diluter-Demand
Pressure-demand masks are reqired for aircraft certified from 35K-45K' (use a regulator that delivers oxygen when pilot inhales, but requires pilot to exhale forcably.
Diluter-demand- used between 25K and 35K, they can be set to dilute oxygen with ambient air or deliver 100% oxygen
Hazards of Oxygen
It acts as an oxidizer, which dramatically increases flammability of other substances, so grease, or oil can become explosive. All components of Oxygen system must be free of trace elements of contaminants
Fixed Slots
Automatic Slot
A fixed slot is at the leading edge of the wing, and directs wind to the upper surface of the wing and DELAYS stall.
A automatic slot has a slat that moves out at high angles of attack, having the same effect as above
Tri-color vasi
Red-below
Amber-Above
Green-on flight path
PVASI
Pulsating Vasi-
Pulsating white light- above
White light- On
Exceptions to portable electronics?
Voice recorders
Hearing aids
Pacemakers
Shavers
Any other devices that operator determines don't interfere with navigation
Crewmembers are required to wear seat belts when-
During t/o and landing, while en route and at their stations. Shoulder harness if installed during t/o and landing
Maximum airspeeds
Max in C and D airspace is 200KIAS
Max in B and below 10K' is 250 KIAS
Altimeter setting regulations
Must be along the rout and within 100NM of a/c
If not available, then the current reported of an appropriate station
If there is no radio, then elevation set to altimeter before departure.
If pressure exceeds 31"HG, then set to 31.00"
Visibility requirements for C, D, or E airspace
Below 10k'- 3-152
At or Above 10k'- 5-111 (1SM horizontal)
Class G visibility
1,200' or less-
Day- 1mile, clear of clouds
Night- 3-152

1,200'-10,000'
Day- 1-152
Night- 3-152

More than 1,200'AGL and 10,000 MSL-
5-111 (1SM horizontal)
When is ELT not required?
Ferrying aircraft for installation of repair of ELT
Training flights within 50NM of airport
When is Mode C required?
At or Above 10K msl (and 2,500 AGL)
30 NM veil class B
Within and above class C
Flying within/across ADIZ
Aerobatic flight not permitted when
Over congested area
Over open air assembly of people
Within lateral boundaries of surface areas of B, C,D,or E airspace for airports
Within 4NM of center-line of federal airway
Below 1,500 AGL
Visibility less than 3SM
Parachutes must be worn when
Bank of 60 degrees or attitude of 30 degrees is exceeded
Does not apply to:
Flight tests for certification ratings
Spins or other maneuvers required for any certificate or rating when given by a CFI or ATP
Primary Radar
Secondary Radar
Primary- Looks for objects in the sky
Secondary- Searches for transponder transmissions
Airport surveillance radar (ASR)
Provides location but not altitude of airplane
If equipped, should the transponder always be on?
Yes, unless otherwise requested by ATC
Abbreviated IFR Flight plan
Gives only pertinent info to ATC for getting instrument approach only, or climbing IFR to VFR on top
If you fail to close flight plan, how long with search and rescue begin?>
Within 1/2 hour of ETA
What constitutes change in flight plan?
If airspeed changes +/-5% or 10KIAS, then you should tell ATC
Best method of speed reduction if hydroplaning is experienced on landing?
Lower nose wheel on a wet runway to stabilize airplane. Also, retracting flaps improves traction
When are position lights required?
Sunset-sunrise
Types of aviation obstruction lighting
Aviation red obstruction lights- flashing red beacons and steady red lights
High intensity white obstruction lights- Flashing white lights during daytime, with reduced intensity during nighttime
Dual lighting- a combination of the above, with red lights for night, and white lights for day
Color of runway edge lights?
White, with yellow the last 2,000 feet of runway, or half the runway, whichever is less.
How to operate radio-controlled runway lighting?
Key mic 7 times, to turn to maximum brightness
If the runway lights are already on, key the mic to ensure 15 minutes of light.
Then, the intensity can be adjusted by keying the mic. 5 or 3 times within 5 seconds.
Regulations pertaining to supplemental oxygen on pressurized aircraft?
Above FL 250- at least a 10 min supply of oxygen is required for every occupant.
Above FL 350- At least 1 pilot is wearing a max, unless 2 pilots are at their stations and they have a quick donning type of oxygen mask that can be placed on face in 5 seconds.
Immediate notification to NTSB is required when..
Flight control system malfunction
Crewmember unable to perform duties
Turbine engine failure of structural components
In-flight fire
Aircraft collision in-flight
Property damage, other than aircraft, is estimated to exceed $25,000.
Overdue aircraft
According to NTSB, what is an accident, an incident, and a serious injury?
Accident- When somebody suffers death, serious injury, or airplane is substantially damaged.
Incident- occurrence other than an accident which affects or could affect safety.
Serious injury- When somebody requires 48 hours of hospitalization within 7 days of the accident, a fracture bones, Severe hemorrhage, or other internal damage, and burns on more than 5% of body.
Where are accident or incident reports filed?
Field office of the National Transportation Safety Board nearest to the accident (found in US Government telephone directories)