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69 Cards in this Set

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Propoganda
to disseminate or promote particular ideas
Jowett and Odonnells Definition of Propoganda
propoganda is the deliberate,
systematic attempt to shape perceptions,
manipulate cognitions and direct behavior to achieve-> a response that furthers the intent of the propagandist
Forms of propoganda
agitativa, white, black, gray
Agitative Propoganda
attempting to rouse an audience to certain ends and usually resulting in significant change
White Propaganda
comes froma source that is identified correctly and the information in the message tends to be accurate
Integrative propaganda
attempts to render an audience passive, accepting and non challenging
White Propoganda
comes from a sourice that is identified correctly and the information in the message tneds to be accurate
- what listerners hear is resonaably close to the truth, it is presented in a manner that attempts to convince the audience that the sender is the "good guy"
Black Propoganda
From a false source, spreads lies fabrications and deceptions.
-Joesph Goebbles (Hitlers Propoganda Ministerr)
Gray Propaganda
source may or may not be identified and the accuracy of the information is uncertain
deflective source model
used in disinformation campaigns
subpropoganda
the propogandists task is to soread an unfamiliar doctrine fr which a considerable period of time is needed to build a frame of mind in the audience toward acceptance of the doctrine.
Communication
a process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver through a channel
List 3 diff. forms of response to persuasion
1) response shaping 2) response reinforcing 3) response changing
belief
a percieved link between any two aspects of a persons world,
"I believe that a laptop computer will help me get better grades"
value
a special kind of belief that endures and is not likely to change. a n
diffusion theory
examine the role communication plays in the spread of innovations.
diffusion theory and AIDS in the US
ni the US the media have had complex effects on AIDS prevention. The media helped to educate americans about aids. t the same time info has not diffused equally to all social groups and the media have been reultcant to broadcast hard hitting but much needed information.
social marketing
social marketing is a process of devising and impleenting programs to increase acceptance of prosocial ideas. ot emphasizes the role played by the four ps of marketing ( product price placement promotion)
5 stages in AIDS prevention campaign
planning, theory appllication, communication alnalysis, implementation and evalluation
teen smoking: the literature suggest that mass media interventions increase their chance of having an impact if the 5 following conditions are met:
1) the campaigm strategies are based on sound social marketing principles
2) the effort is large and intense enough

3) target groups are carefully differentiated

4) messages for specific taraget groups are based on empirical findings regardng the needs and interests of the group
5) the campaign is of significant duration.
a critque of social marketing
( Combating Teen Smoking article)
1)some find it ironic/inappropriate/offensive.
2)Some people may not want to emulate the tools and strategies of those who promote consumption and strive to maniulate behavior
3) criticized as too often focusing on individuals and ther behaviors tather than "upstream causes" typically socioeconomic , ecological or political in nature.
6 aspects of Social marketing ( combatting teens moking article)
1) the use of consumer orientation in the development of intervention techniques
2)the use of exchange theory
3) audiecne segmentation and analysis strategies
4) an emphasis on pretesting in market segments and formatve research in intervention development
5) the use of an information system t track the prcess by which the campaign was implemented
6) a strong management process that ncludes feedback and cotrol processes.
exchange theory
" marketings orientation towards satisfying consumer interestes through the utilization of techniques taht faciliatte voluntary exchanges between the consumer adn the producer)
Types of campaigns
commercial, issue policy, political election, public )health
Communication Campaign Targets (6)
The media, Industry, Communities, Schools, Home, Government
Segmenting the Audience
1) Demographics 2)Motivattion (more difficult to persuave involved audience- issue involvement, specific motive
3)Ability (knowldege
Why is it important to segmen your audience?
Want persuasive appeals to work
To persuade from TRA
add beliefs consistent with persuasive goal

attack existing beliefs, attack evaluations
motivation (ELM)
 value relevant: attached to someone’s values
 Outcome relevant: relevant to their situation
 Audience member has a high need for cognition
 Message is rhetorical ( more with a dialogue really interacting with message)
ability (ELM)
 Audience is already knowledgeable
 Message is simple
 Distraction is minimal
 Repetition is high
 Medium allows for control (on a film. Or on computer.. interacting with message)
attitude is
Psychological tendency
that is expressed by evaluating
a particular entity
with some degree of favor or disfavor
message descrepancy ( reciever characteristics)

what two theories believe that message discrepancy is an important part of the persuasive process?
the extent to which a persuaders message recommendation differs from the position held by the target person or audience.
social judgement theory
lattitudes of acceptance
lattitudes of rejection
information processing theory
evaluation of the message is based on an internal check.. more evidence supports information processing theory
3 research traditions of involvement
value relevant, outcome relevant, impression relevant]> reflect the different functions that involvement may serve in the persuasion process.
value relevant involvement
reflects a concern about values that define a persons self-concept (how they see themselves)
outcome relevant involvement
concern about the outcome
Dimensions of credibility
expertise and trustworthiness
sleeper effect of credibiltiy
source credibility has its greatest oersuasive influence in the short term and that over time people dissasociate the source of a message from the message content- THUS in the long run message features are more persuasive than source characteristics
Heuristic model of persuasion (swit ch 10)
posits that two factors guide the processing of persuasive messgaes:
1) systematic processing ( involves the careful scrutiny of message content AND heuristic processing ( little cognitive effort required)
Complexity of aids HIV target audience
herterosexuals, IV drug users, sex workers, ethnic groups
steps in developing a communication campaign
problemidentification
problem analysis
goal setting
audience target, analyze
message: theory and strategy
message creation
testing and reformulation
implementation
evaluation
Obesity Lessons ( 2 lessons)
Integrated Campaign
Many venues
3 problems on the persuasion agenda today
1) bush defends domestic spying
calls spying" surveillance of terrorists" and promises that they check on international phone calls.. "dont you want us to protect you?"

2) HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer: must be given to young girls but may cause problems because of its relation to stds

3) GSK markets alli (weuight loss drug).
minor side effects, over the counter with FDA approval soon expected
america ns expected to spend 412-25 a week
7 ways to segment an audience
1) demographics
2) motivcations
3) Ability (knowledge)
4) attitudes/values/beliefs
5) natonal/region/political identity
6) demograhic segment
7)psychological/sociolgical
WHy segment an audience?
we want persuasive appeal to work
tune persuasive appeal to the audience
avoid points of reisistance ( anticipate and regture resistance)
demographics
acts as a surrpgate for real audience beliefs, use ony when direct info is unvailable.
Motivation
Involvement (easy to reach, difficult to persuade, requires storng arguments
value relevant
issues central to the self concept. engaganes an audiences central values
outcome relevant Will the audience be resistant?
concerned with self interest (eg affirmative acton & students). Strong arguments required for persuasion because audiene witll be resistant.
segmenting audi ces: media what is the trend towards?
tv channels 2+ tv households 35-74%
fm radio: 2200 to 8200
how do we know about media use
sales data ( newspapers, magazines), hits for webpages, reports for consumers (self reports, monitoring devices: neilson)
3 problems in observing media use?
reliability ( consistency)
validity ( des mean exposure, is exposure attenton?)
representativeness ( sample
)
Middletown media studies ctr for media studies- study description
observational methoed
15 different media
all locations, home work
12 hr shifts... study kept track of multiple media use
Strenghts and Weaknesses discovered frm Middletown media studeues?
1) we need better data on media use ( biggest disadvantage: multiple media use)
2) engagement: is exposure equal to attention?
3) representativeness of sample ( limited asian and latino)
PSA's on TV, Gantz and Schwartz study findings?
public service announcements. 10 channel study. odnated vs. paid air time

43% midnight
37% childrens issues
36% paid for 1%
what kinnd of PSA's wont they show?
donateswont show religious, political, controversial, graphic, disturbing PSAs
Alternatives to PSAs? (3)
free meida
use news to create coverage
buy time and ask for time
Consistency Theories
assumes that people desire to maintain logica consistency between beliefs and behavuirs and inconsistency motivates change. ( ABX triangles)
AB * AX * BX- must be positive or else there is incocnsistency
4 problems with incosnsitency
1) too simple: need multiple beliefs
2) people tolerate inconsistency all the time
3) lack of predictability
4) not helpful in understanding persuasion
What 4 things does the TRA assume?
1) ppl are rati0onal
2) behavior is determined by intentions
3) intensions depend on attitudes toward behavior and social pressure
4) opeople act on valued beliefs, respond to others
explain the meaning of the two attitude formation numbers for the TRA?
First #: how likely is it that these consequence occur

Second #: how pro is pro? how con is con?
In the TRA describe the two norm formation values?
(0.10, -2)

.1= do you care?
-2= rate of disapprovcal
TRA: "bhevioral intention deoeds on...______ and _____
Attitudes and Norms
TRA vs. ELM
the ELM is about audience responses to messages
the ELM is a ____ approach to persuasion?
"cognitive"
ELM assumes what 3 things?
1) we hold,a desire to hold correct opinions in uncertain situations:L gather maximal info.
2) conitive misers ( azy) fahter least info. neccesary
3) satisfying: balancing full info. vs. shortcuts.
6 peripheral cues?
1) source credibiltiy
2) phsycial attractiveness
3) number of argumetnts
4) length of message
5) number o fpieces of evidence
5) if then consturctions ( logicness)
what is the key attribute of a central processing cue?
argument quality