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89 Cards in this Set

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what kind of theory is cultural studies
focus of cultural studies
those moments when media are engaged in the use of ideological tools and tactics to maintain a mass view or attitude toward some issue
point of cultural studies
to empower ppl who are on the margins of society, ppl who have little say in the direction of their lives and whoa re scrambling just to survive
2 functions of mass media according to hall (cultural studies)
1) to maintain the dominance of those already in positions of pwr
2) to exploit the poor and pwrless
democratic pluralism --cultural studies
the false belief that we live in a democracy
at most, we live in an aristocracy
no respect for diversity
myth of democracy -- cultural studies
society is held together by common normas including equal opportunity, respect for diversity, one person = one vote, individual rights, rule of law, etc
media messages have little effect on ppl exposed to them
democracy works, and therefore, citizens are capable and are actively engaged in deliberative thoughts
this is all myth
3 fundamental assumptions about media-- cultural studies
1) mass media messages do a certain type of work
2) mass media messages are not innocent
3) mass media messages are constructed vehicles of influenc
what hall (cultural studies) wants us to get from his theory
he wants us to think for ourselves and to deliberate
recognize beforehand what the media wants us to think so we can differentiate that from the truth
you can agree with the media as long as you have deliberated first
hegemony--cultural studies
critical term for cultural studies
dominance of one group over another
preponderant influence or authority, especially of one nation over another
made from cultural via the media
hegemonic encoding--cultural studies
regulate and mold discourse--make sure some messages are filtered through a particular lens or frame
messages should be decoded, internalized, and acted upon by the audience
aim of hegemonic encoding
to limit the range of possible interpretations
to make choice and belief a function of inevitability
discourse--cultural studies
the capacity for orderly thought and speech
verbal interchange of ideas
formal, orderly, extended expression of thought on a subject
primary function of discourse--cultural studies
to make meaning
overcoming discourse consists of... (cultural studies)
1) recognizing that meaning is created through it
2) directing our attention to its source
audience response to media influence operating inside the dominant code--cultural studies
media produces the message
audience consumes the message
audience accepts the ideological baggage
audience response to media influence applying a negotiable code--cultural studies
media produces the message
audience consumes the message
audienc generally agress with the message, but still has the option to reject it in later circumstances
audience response to media influence substituting an oppositional code
media produces the message
audience denies the message on the basis of media bias
audience constructs an appropriate interpretation of the message
key idea of cultivation theory
what you see on tv cultivates attitudes
seeing lot of violence cultivates social paranoia
tv give you a pircture of reality and what is right--it's the PRIMARY storyteller in most homes
why it is impossible to conduct an experiment about television viewing
because in order to conduct an experiment, the researcher has to be in complete control, which is impossible with TV because it is everywhere
light tv viewers-- cult theory
under 2 hours/day
heavy tv viewers--cult theory
over 4 hours/day
"whatever is on" tv types
tv is always on
cultivation differential-- cult theory
difference in the percent giving the "tv answer" within comparable groups of light and heavy viewers
four attitudes studying in cult differential--cult theory
1) chances of involvement with violence
2) fear of walking alone at night
3) perceived activity of police
4) general mistrust of ppl
results of cult differential experiment-- cult thoery
all four attitudes were higher is heavy viewers
1) mainstreaming
2) resonance
mainstreaming-- cult theory
tv types develop a commonality of outlook
middles of the road, middle class attitudes more liberal
"new populism"
resonance-- cult theory
we replay violent real-life experiences over and over as we see similar things on tv
amplifies it
critique of cult theory
some research has shown that non-tv viewers are the most fearful
no cultivation effect with comedies, news, sports, variety shows or documentaries
impact of viewer motivation?
fear is not well measured
violence index--cult theory
nonviolent shows are not typical
drama: 5 violent acts/hr
childrens shows: 20 acts/hr

older ppl, children, blacks, hispanics, women, and blue collar workers harmed more in shows
main idea of agenda setting
mass media transfers the importance of item on THEIR news agenda to the public agenda
they tell us what to think about, but we can still decide HOW to think--like cultural studies, but still leaves us with our freedom of choice
does media REFLECT the public's agenda or CREATE their agenda?
1968 election --agenda setting
they looked at the ranking of issues according to news stories aired and the issues that undecided voters found most important were almost identical in ranking
those individuals most likely to be influenced by the media's agenda are those who... (agenda setting)
...have a high need for orientation (index of curiosity)
this arises from high relevance and uncertainty
agena-setting impact is strongest on those issues that...
are one step removed from citizens' direct experience
IE in a campaign, the person picked by the media s the likely winner gets a lot of attention from viewers/readers
who sets the agenda for the agenda setters
the media elite
spin doctors
pr pros
interest aggregations
priming--agenda setting
media emphasis activates in ppl's minds and memories previously acquired info about that topic
framing--agenda setting
media call attention to some aspects of reality while obscuring other elements--the media frame creates meaning
includes context, mood, and selectivity
critique of agenda setting
most research now demonstrates a limited effect
the media set the agenda for some ppl some of the time
framaing is a more promising issue
the media equation
media = real life
why theorist think we do it--media equation
due to evolution of the human brain, we treat media that personify human characterisitics as human
this human biological limitation means that the media equation is an unconscious and atomatic response
interpersonal distance--media equation
the media equation suggests that media images that appear close should engender in viewers more intense reactions than media images that appear farther away
similarity and attraction--media equation
computers can be endowed with "personality"
indiciduals liked a computer with a similar personality to theirs more than one they see as different
source credibilty--media equation
viewers assigned a specific role or expertise to an electronic messenger
ppl responded differently to programming on tv sets that said "generalist" and "specialist" even if they showed the same shows
criticisms of media equation
reeves and nass offer little hope that ppl can easily resist the human qualitites of media
knowledge of the media equation is only a limited defense against media's interpersonal advances
their perspective on interpersonal communication comes from social psych rather than from the field of communication
interface--media equation
a term for human-media interaction that suggests that we use the same rules in these encounters as in face to face interpersonal interactions with other ppl
the "not me" syndrom--media equation
a way we set ourselves apart from others by clinging to the naive belife that our attitudes and actions are not conditioned by situation or circumstance
effective communication--anxiety
minimizing misunderstandings
accurately predicting and explaining each other's behavior
axioms of anxiety
1)inclusions needs leads to anxiety
2)attraction to strangers leads to less anxiety and uncertainty
3)increased cognitive complexity leads to less uncertainty
4)more violations of positive expectations or confirming negative expectations leads to more anxiety and uncertainty
5)more understanding of the dialect leads to less anxiety and uncertainty
6)more similarity leads to less anxiety and uncertainty
7)more shared communication networks leads to less anxiety and uncertainty
8)more ability to produce new categories leads to less anxiety and uncertianty
9)more ability to tolerate ambiguity leads to less uncertianty
10)more ability to empathize leads to less uncertainty
key axiom--anxiety
mindfulness leads to less anxiety and uncertainty which leads to more effective communication
a feeling
main idea of face negotiations
assumes ppl of every culture are always negotiating "face" (public self image)
face-work is different, depending upon culture
low context cultures emphasize honesty and assertiveness
high context cultures emphasize subtlety and empathy (sensing)
face concern--face negotiations
mine or yours
face need--face negotiations
negative face--space, privacy, noninterference--more low context
positive face--respect, approval, appreciation--more high context)
face restoration--face negotiations
give self freedom
face saving--fac negotiations
signal respect for other's space or freedom
face assertion--face negotiations
defend one's inclusion need
face giving--face negotiations
defend another's inclusion need
5 conflict styles--fac negotiation
avoiding, abliging, compromising, dominating, problem solving
ethnography--speech codes
a research method that places a premium on discovering the meanings that people share within a given culture
speech code
an historically enacted, socially constructed system of terms, meanings, presmises, and rules pertaining to communicative conduct
general goal of speech code theory
to capture the relationship b/t communication and culture
to guide cultural researchers and practitioners in knowing what to look for
to offer clues on how to interpret the way ppl speak
to answer questions about the existence of speech codes, their substance, the way theyc an be discovered, and their force upon ppl w/in a culture
first proposiiton of speech codes
wherever there is a distinctive culture, there is to be found a distinctive speech code
teamsterville = importance of place (where you are from is important--if you are from the area, you are "in place")
nacirema = importance of individuality
second proposition of speech codes
a speech code involves a culturally distinctive psychology, sociology, and rhetoric
psychology = sense of self
sociology = sense of society
rhetoric = why the individual made a particular verbal choice--strategic action
teamsterville = attack on female family member is an attack on me and my honor
nacirema = words create a sense of individuality
third proposition of speech codes
the signigicance of speaking depends on the speech codes used by speakers and listeners to createa nd interpret their communication
essentially, how do individuals feel about their talk?
teamsterville = talk gets nothing done
nacirema = talk betters our lives
fourth proposition in speech codes
the terms, rules, and premises of speech code are inextrivably woven into speaking itself
we look for patterns in who talks to whome, in what settings, toward what end, and abouit what topics
if people talk, you can find their speech codes (you can't avoid it)
fifth proposition in speech codes
the artful use of a shared speech code is a sufficient condition for predicting, explaining, and controlling the form of discourse about the intelligibility, prudence, and morality of communication conduct
if i can figure out your speech code, i can get "in" with you
nacirema--speech codes
average american
dr. phil culture
if we could only communicate better, all our problems would go away
women tend to focus on connection
relationships with other ppl
focus on being liked
rapport talk
men tend to focus on status and independence when they communicate
report talk
public speaking vs. private speaking--genderlect
women use talk to build connection
men to command attention, convey info, insist on agreement
women are more comfortable with small talk or personal talk
men with monologues/lecturing
telling a story--genderlect
men do it more
jokes negotiate status (can you top this?)
women tell stories about others to downplay themselves (stupid thing i said)
women respond (nonverbally), men don't
women then conclude that the men aren't listening
interruptions as cooperative overlap (sign or rapport--"i know what you mean"--establish commonality)
men look at interruptions as a pwr move and source of irritation (change topic or express disagreement)
asking questions--genderlect
for direction
tag questions ("isn't it?" "right?"): women are more likely--looks needy and hesitant to men
sparing match
men usually initiate
women more likely to avoid
men react to control with anger, which leads to conflict
verbally sharing problems--genderlect
advice vs. understanding
thin research base
most studies show that gender difference account for only 1-2% of the variance in most dependent
a standpoint is a place from which to view the world around us
harding argues that the perspective of the less powerful can provide a more objective view that the perspective of the more powerful
gender differences--standpoint
different emphases on autonomy and connectedness
wood argues that these differences are largely due to cultural expectations and societal treatment
hierarchy so that different groups have different levels of power, opportunities, and experience
why start searching for an unbiased perspective with the underclass? --standpoint
1) ppl with subordinate status have greater motivation to understand the perspective of more powerful groups than vice versa
2) they have less reason to defend the status quo
critique of standpoint
must be careful not to essentialize
must see women as a group and also individual differences
sapir-whorf hypothesis--muted group
the language that we use influences the reality that we see
words have power
muted groups
at the low end
have difficulty expressing their experiences in the language of the dominant group, thus, they are overlooked or muted
men's system of perception--muted group
b/c of men's political dominance, men's system of perception is dominant--men frame the discussion
men name things, the names stick IE all the negative words to describe women's talk and sexually active women
men decide what is significant--women's art and work is ignored
woman taking man's name = men's control
critique of muted group
are men TRYING to control women?
world view I
hold to a singluar, independent, and autonomous social reality
theoretical principles are independent of local conditions
interpretation cannot always cross lines of time and space
words have specific meanings
world view II
believe in multiple domains
they say there is nothing objective about signs and significance
social domain seperate from the material realm
texts never interpret themselves
interpretation is a human accomplishment that creates data
reality is a conferred status
rejection: hall is...
deeply suspicious of and hostile to empirical work that has no ideas
doesn't like behavioral scientists' sole focus on outward behavior
rejection: bostrom and donahue feel...
interpretivism--the possibility of theory construction is impossible
theoretical anarchy and substitution of pseudo-explanations for scientific explanation due to interpretivists
fathers of scientific model of sommunication
hovland, lewin, lazarsfeld, lasswell
fathers of the rhetorical tradition
plato, aristotle, cicero, and quintilian