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50 Cards in this Set

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Reward Based Power:
This power is based on instrumental compliance. It has a good chance of working when used. A subordinate is promised an incentive if they perform as requested. An example of this would be "If you take this to the office, I will give you a piece of candy."
Coercive Power:
This power is based on threats and fear of punishment. In it, the subordinate is acting to avoid a sanction. An example of this power base would be "IF your paper is late then you will recieve an E." or "Do this now or else I will write you up."
Legitimate power
based on orgnaizationally granted rights. A leader exercises their influence by using their organizational power. An example of this would be "I am your parent, I said so." or "I am your teacher, and I can tell you you will work in this group today." Sometimes when this power is being stated they may not come and say this organization, but it's implied through direction.
Expert power:
This power is based on percieved skill. Followers comply becayse they believe the leader knows what to do in order to succeed. An example of this would be "If Mrs. Smith says that is true, then that is true."
Referent power:
This power is based on admiration and respect. A subordinate comples because they admire the leaders. An example of this would be "Mr. Smith is one cool dude. He is so nice, and he always listens to me."
What are the basis of social power?
Reward, Coercive, Legitimate, Expert, and Referent. McCrosky did 7 studies on the use of these basis, and found them to be perceiver based. Referent power showed positive correlation to cognitive learning.
What are the BAT's (Behavior Alteration Techniques?)
Immidiate, Deferred, Reward from Teacher, Reward from Others, Self-Esteem, Punishment, Punishment from Teacher, Punishment from Others, Guilt, Teach/Stud relationship (positive), Teach/Stud relationship (negative), Legitimate-Higher authority, Legitimate-Teacher authority, Personal responsibility (student), Personal responsibility (to class), Normative rules, Debt, Altruism, Peer Modeling, Teacher Modeling, Expert Teacher, Teacher Feedback.
Immidiate Reward from Behavior:
You will enjoy it. It will make you happy because it's fun. Rewarding, interesting, a good experience.
Deferred reward from Behavior:
It will help you later. Prepare you for college, job, life, tests, upcoming assignments.
Reward from Teacher:
I will give you a reward if you do it, beneficial to you, good grade, extra credit, special assistant.
Reward from Others:
Others will respect you, proud of you, friends and parents pleased.
Punishment from Behavior:
You'd lose if you don't. You'll be hurt, it's your loss, you'll feel bad.
Punishment from Teacher:
I'll punish you if you don't. I will make it miserable for you. I'll give you an 'F.'
Punishment from Others:
No one will like you. Your friends will make fun of you, your parents will punish you.
Guilt:
Others will be hurt. You'll make others unhappy. Your parents will feel bad.
T/S Relationship Positive:
I will like you better if you do. I will respect you, think more highly of you.
T/S Relationship Negative:
I will not like you, I will lose respect for you.
Legitimate-Higher Authority
Do it, I'm just telling you what I was told. It's a rule. I have to do it.
Legitimate-Teacher Authority
Because I told you to, I'm your teacher. You don't have a choice. I'm in charge.
Personal Student Responsibility:
It's your obligation. It's your turn. Everyone has to do their share. It's your job.
Responsibility to class:
Your group needs it done. The class depends on you. All your friends are counting on you. Don't let your group down.
Normative Rules:
We voted, majority rules. Everyone else has to do it.
Debt:
You owe me. You promised to do it.
Altruism:
By doing this, you'll help others. Others will benefit.
Peer Modeling
Your friends do it. Classmates you respect do it, too.
Teacher Modeling:
This is the way I always do it. When I was your age...
Expert Teacher:
From my experience....from what I've learned....
Teacher feedback:
I need to know how well you understand this. I need to know your problem areas.
What is Communication Apprehension?
Almost like "Stage Fright," except that it can take place anywhere. It's the anxiety someone experiences when faced with the idea of communicating.
1st Effect- tendency to find employment that requires limited communication.
This effect is a relative of the CA trait that students carry where they position themselves throughout the classroom to “inhibit interaction.” When communicating is hard, students with CA try to avoid it, thus finding employment that requires limited communication is only natural.
2nd Effect-offered fewer jobs at lower salaries.
This is perhaps a result of CA student’s tendency to find employment that requires limited communication because a lot of high paying jobs require high communication. Businesses all over the world require productive communication; something that CA students fear.
3rd Effect-viewed as less socially attractive
Because of their inability to communicate efficiently, their perceived sociability (also explained in effect number five) may be negative. This might mean that CA students have fewer friends or at least have trouble making more friends.
4th Effect-disclose less
This speaks of the depth of the relationships that CA students do have. Perhaps they can make friends, but have trouble maintaining friends. Students with CA, who disclose less, most likely experience more relational decay than growth.
5th Effect- rated lower on extroversion, composure, and sociability.
Obviously students who have trouble communicating properly are going to be less outgoing (extroversion, sociability), but students with CA are also rated lower in their composure. In situations that involve speaking up, CA has the potential to attack the composure of the student causing the student to become anxious or nervous.
6th Effect-low self-esteem
Low self-esteem is especially seen out of the classroom. This has to do with their perceived notions of themselves which could stem from the negative feedback that CA students receive from social situations.
7th Effect-feel isolated and seclusive.
This might be a result of their social attractiveness, but also from their low self-esteem. Its one thing to be isolated and seclusive, but to feel isolated and seclusive, even when they’re not either of these things seems to be a possibility with CA. This is also related to their low self-esteem.
8th Effect-lack of trust in others
This perhaps stems from several of the other effects of CA; the feeling of isolation could and low self-esteem for instance could logically lead to a lack of trust in others and low disclosure could possibly be an effect of such lack of trust.
8 Forms of Evidence/Support:
Real Example, Personal Experience, Statistics, Authoritative Opinion, Hypothetical Example, Definition, Comparison, Familiar Saying
Real Example:
Place it in the proper context, do not distort when selecting details
Use examples that are consistent with other known examples.(Typical)
Use detail in its presentation
When using several examples, vary the amount of detail.(Length)
Personal Experience:
Place it in the proper context, do not distort when selecting details
Use examples that are consistent with other known examples.(Typical)
Use detail in its presentation
When using several examples, vary the amount of detail.(Length)
Statistics:
The rules for using this type of example are as follows:
1. Use when you want to stress quantity in an idea.
2. Visualize and simplify to make understandable to an audience.
Authoritative Opinion:
Use authorities that are accepted as such by your listeners.
Establish the authoritativeness of someone who is not accepted as an authority by your listeners.
Present the opinion in an appropriate form(direct quote; paraphrase; simple reference)
Vary the form when presenting several opinions.
Hypothetical Example:
Create something that is consistent with known facts.
2. Use detail in presentation.
3. Vary the amount of detail used. (length)
Definition:
Etymological—Tracing historical roots.
2. Operational – one for working purposes.
3. Negation—defining something by what it is not.Use familiar terms to define unfamiliar terms.
2. Audience knowledge is what determines what is familiar and what is not.
3. Be consistent in the use of a term once you have attached a particular meaning to it.
Etymological—Tracing historical roots.
2. Operational – one for working purposes.
3. Negation—defining something by what it is not.

The rules for usage are as follows:

1. Use familiar terms to define unfamiliar terms.
2. Audience knowledge is what determines what is familiar and what is not.
3. Be consistent in the use of a term once you have attached a particular meaning to it.
Comparison:
Between what is known and what is unknown. Establish three similarities/differences.
Familiar Saying:
Serves to reinforce the point. Has to be familiar, and can't use too many.
Leading Classroom Discussions:
Choose Method, Plan (Intro, Body, Conclusion), Characteristics (Experiential, Student Emphasis, Focus on Critical Thinking, Questions,)
Choosing the Discussion Method:
Resources of group members, Work out principals discussed, prompt feedback, help students practice thinking, Evaluate logic, Student awareness, theories, new horizons.
Advantages-More resources, ideas, feedback. Practice expressing themselves, Helps gain skill, expose to variety.
Disadvantages-Takes time, teachers/students possess communication/discussion skills.
Planning:
Intro- grab them. Motivate. Preview, so they can stay on track. Highlight relevance.
Body-What questions can I ask? Meet objectives, figure out patterns.
Conclusion-Tie the discussion together. Make sure they understand the purpose and objective of the discussion.
Characteristics:
Experiential-Best Learn when actively involved. Student Empthasis-Specific goal in mind, but it's mainly about them.
Critical Thinking- Writings stress the importance of these skills.
Questions- Strategy. Prepare so that if the discussion gets off track, you can lead them back to the topic. Be prepared for anything!