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24 Cards in this Set

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An active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, object, events, and activities. We select certain things to notice and then we organize and interpret the information to form our perceptions
Definition of perception?

2-Organization and Constructivism

What are 3 processes to form a perception?
Define process of "selection" to form perception?
Differentiating all the information and stimulus and attending to what you define as important
Define process of organization and constructivism?
Differentiating all the information and stimulus and attending to what you define as important
1 – prototype*
2 - personal construct*
3 – stereotype*
4 - script
What are 4 "cognitive schemata"?
ideal or best example of some category
i.e. prototype of good teacher, good friend, group leader
Descr "prototype" cognitive schemata?
Bipolar dimensions of judgment
i.e. good vs. bad, kind vs. not kind, trustworthy vs. not trustworthy
What is a "personal construct" cognitive schemata?
Predictive generalizations about people and situations. Based on the category (established by prototypes) and how they measure up to our (personal constructs), we predict what will happen. I.e. If a person is defined as a liberal, you might stereotype this person as likely to vote democrat, support social services and oppose the death penalty. Stereotypes may help us to predict what will happen they also may keep us from seeing the differences between people we have grouped into a category.
Expected behaviors of certain group
What is a "stereotype" cognitive schemata?
What is a "script" cognitive schemata?
A sequence of activities sues that spell out how we should act in a certain situation. I.e. When you pass a casual acquaintance in the hall you say “hi, how ya doing?” “Fine” “See ya.”
Subjective process for creating explanations for what we observe and experience
What is "interpretation'?
What are 3 causes we attribute to certain behavior?
1 - Internal/External Locus

2 - Stability

3 - Control
Attributes what a person does to internal factors i.e. “he’s mad” or “the traffic frustrated him”
First locus when we attribute a behavior to internal or external factors
What is internal/external locus?
Explains actions as a result of stable factors that won’t change i.e. “she’s always nervous.” Or unstable i.e. “she is nervous b/c she has finals and it is a stressful time.”
What is "stability" factor as attribute for explaining behavior?
attributes responsibility for actions either to people or to factors beyond their control i.e. “she cant control her temper” or i.e. “she has a chemical imbalance
What is "control" factor as attribute for explaining behavior?
Inclination to attribute our positive action and successes to internal and stable factors (we are a lot more generous w ourselves then others
i.e. The A on a test is b/c I am a smart person (internal) who is always responsible (stable), and studies hard (personal control).
Explain self serving bias?
How each of us perceive certain situations is affected by several factors such as
cognitive abilities
social roles, membership in cultural or social communities. Our perception is subjective (come from our own personal point of view)
1 - Physiologic Factors

2 - Expectations
What influences our perception of certain events?
Explain how "physiologic factors " influence our perceptions?
1 senses-Everyone’s senses are different i.e. what music I like you might hate

2 Physiologic state-i.e. tired, hungry, happy, stressed, or sick

3 physiology-Such as height and weight.
I.e. What a short person perceives as hard to reach a tall person wouldn’t
How we think and act is affected by our expectations of a certain person or event. Our expectations frame situations and events so we can make reasonable anticipations
Explain how expectations influence our perceptions?
What influences our perception of a "violation of our expectation?"

Give examples
1-If the violation is a + or - experience
ie *I.e. If someone gave you a gift that you didn’t expect vs. a supervisor whom you thought supported you yells at you.

2-the extent to which the behavior deviates
ie I.e. if your supervisor simply withheld positive feedback would be a lesser violation than if they reprimanded you in front

3-Impact on relationship
ieI.e. if you are dating and your date doesn’t call when they promised vs. if they started dating your best friend
The number of constructs (bipolar dimensions of judgment), how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape our perceptions. Research show that cognitively complex people are flexible in interpreting complicated phenomena and integrate new information into their thinking about people and situations. People who are less cognitively complex tend to ignore information that doesn’t fit their impressions or throw out old ideas and replace them with new impressions.
I.e. child uses simple cognitive systems and focus on concrete structures such as tall vs. not tall and secure vs. not secure

The older we get the richer our levels of perception become. Cognitively Complex.
How do "cognitive complexity" affect communication?
How does "person centeredness' affecr communication?
Ability to perceive other as a unique individual. When we perceive distinctions btwn people we can adapt out communication to particular individuals. This is linked to cognitive complexity and we must understand something about them.
I.e. an effective politician may adjust his speaking and emphasize different topics when talking to elderly citizens. Index of how adaptable we are as a communicator to the speaker and see them as individuals
How do "social roles" effect cognitive complexity?
We all have different social roles
I.e. kid, student. Granddaughter, employee, Doctor
Perceive everything based on their own personal biases

See everything that is out their but don’t see it thru your
internal filter
What is intentional vs extensional filter
1 – Avoid mind reading

2 – Check Perceptions w others

3 – Distinguish fact from inference and judgements
How to improve skill in perception?