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85 Cards in this Set

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ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What secret did capitalism discover that previous modes of production had not?
The wealth of societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails appears as an “immense collection of commodities.”
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What secret did capitalism discover that previous modes of production had not?
The wealth of societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails appears as an “immense collection of commodities.”
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION
In older non-market societies how could we characterize people’s relationships with goods?
More direct connection – most goods consumed were produced by themselves or person they knew.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What feature of goods did Marx recognize and install into his methodological framework?
The social relations of production were visible o all and in a sense, embedded in goods as a part of their meaning.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

Why did Marx start his analysis with the Commodity?
If one could understand how commodity was produced, exchanged, and consumed, one would have the basis of an understanding of the entire system of capital relations.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What happens to the real meaning of goods in capitalist production and consumption?
They are emptied out.

“Fetish of commodities” = a disguise whereby the appearance of things in the marketplace masks the story of who fashioned them and under what conditions.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What does T. Jackson Lears argue about the early years of the 20th century?
Feelings of unreality, depression, and loss accompanied by the experience of autonomy.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What had happened to the quest for health by the 20th century?
Became an almost entirely secular process.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

How does advertising resemble the therapeutic world?
A world in which all overarching structures of meaning had collapsed. (Phillip Rieff)
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

In the consumer society what takes over the functions of traditional culture?
Resolves the tensions and contradictions of the INDUSTRIAL society as the marketplace and consumption take over traditional culture.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What is the function of advertising with regard to the relation between object and producer?
To refill the emptied commodity with meaning.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

In the stage of Idolatry, how does the consumer society respond to the appearance of the “immense collection of commodities”?
Celebration of the great productive capacities of industrial society as reflected in products.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What are the early stages of national advertising characterized by?
Stage of idolatry.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What strategy did advertisers use to call forth a religious experience with objects?
Visual clichés that employed vague forms of sacred symbolism – such as visuals sought to transform the product in a “surrogate trigger.”
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

How does advertising develop in the stage of Iconology?
Icons are symbols; they mean something. Advertising moves from the worship of commodities to their MEANING within a SOCIAL CONTEXT.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

In the stage of Narcissism how is the power of the product predominantly manifested?
Product reflects desires of the individual; power predominates through the strategy of “black magic” (= sudden physical transformation, entrance others.)
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

In the stage of Totemism, what do goods take the place of?
Correlation between natural and social world where natural differences stand for social difference. Goods take place of NATURAL SPECIES.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

In the contemporary marketplace how is the person-object relationship articulated?
Psychologically, physically, and socially.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

How does advertising reflect the world that Marx described as characteristic of capitalism?
An enchanted kingdom of magic and fetishism where goods are autonomous, wher they enter into relations with each other, and where they appear in “fantastic forms” in their relations to humans.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What is the real function of advertising if not to give people information?
To make them feel good.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What is advertising a secular version of and why?
Version of God because advertising can “satisfy” us and “justify” our choices.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What two gospels does John Kavanaugh identify?
Commodity and person that serve as ultimate and competing forms of perception.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

At what level does advertising as a religion operate?
At a mundane every day level.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

What kind of religion can advertising be compared to?
Fetishistic religion; affects physical, social, and psychological human conduct that attention is directed to.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

According to Raymond Williams, what choice does modern advertising obscure?
Choice between man as consumer and man as user because advertising both recognizes our reality and then offers a false interpretation of it.
ADVERTISING AS RELIGION

In the world of advertising the spirits of what invade the commodity and supply its power?
The spirits of technology.
ON ADVERTISING

As a social scientist, what question is Jhally interested in?
Question of determination – what structures the world and how we live in it.
ON ADVERTISING

What is Marx’s aphorism that Jhally works with?
Philosophers help us understand the world, but the point is to change it.
ON ADVERTISING

What was Twitchell amazed by in terms of what his students knew?
How little they knew about literature compared to advertising.
ON ADVERTISING

What about the material world interests Twitchell?
Why it’s been so overlooked, so denigrated; why happiness can’t come from it.
ON ADVERTISING

Why is Jhally interested in advertising, coming out of the Marxist tradition?
Advertising link the material world and the world of symbolism and culture.
ON ADVERTISING

What is Jhally’s view driven by?
Political factors, not moral ones.
ON ADVERTISING

What according to Jhally, have advertisers realized since the 1920s?
Things don’t make people happy. Social lives drive people.
ON ADVERTISING

Why doesn’t Jhally agree with Twitchell, when he (Twitchell) says that advertisers are delivering to people what they want?
Deliver images of what people say they want connected to the things advertisers sell.
ON ADVERTISING

What vision does Jhally see in advertising?
Vision of socialism used to sell commodities.
ON ADVERTISING

Why does Twitchell think advertising excludes communal desires?
Not as high on most people’s agendas as they are for those in their 50s.
ON ADVERTISING

Why doesn’t Jhally think that we can accept that advertisers reflect people’s real needs and desires?
Only answered when you have a space in the culture where alternative values can be articulated.
ON ADVERTISING

According to Jhally, where is the only place in the culture where there is still independent thinking going on?
The academy, where discussions take place.
ON ADVERTISING

Why does Jhally think that students do not follow through on the politics they really believe in once they leave higher education?
They are $30,000 in debt but know what they want to do; capitalism is to get people in debt early.
ON ADVERTISING

Why does Jhally disagree with Twitchell’s claim that the media system reflects most people’s ideas and desires?
Education provides the tools to think and understand the world. It’s up to them to figure out what to do with that.
ON ADVERTISING

How do Jhally and Twitchell disagree when it comes to the question of power?
Jhally thinks it’s the outside in and Twitchell thinks it’s the articulated will of the consumer.
ON ADVERTISING

Why does Twitchell think people buy diamonds when they know them to be worthless?
Company says it’s how you are successful in courting women.
ON ADVERTISING

According to Jhally, what does the diamond example point to?
People’s relationship with objects that defines us as humans, illustrating the power of advertising.
ON ADVERTISING

According to Jhally what is real and false about advertising?
It takes real needs and desires.

REAL: it appeals.

FALSE: there are no answers it provides to appeals.
ON ADVERTISING

According to Jhally, why is happiness a zero-sum game?
It’s a relative state in terms of what others have at the time.
ON ADVERTISING

What does Marx say about people making history?
People make their own history, but not in condition of their own choosing.
ON ADVERTISING

According to Jhally, what happens when you look at only one side of Marx’s aphorism on making history?
You get a distorted view.
ON ADVERTISING

According to Jhally, why did the Soviet Union fall apart?
Never dealt with individual needs; no one believed glamorous images from West.
ON ADVERTISING

Why does Twitchell think advertising is not a trick?
We collaborate in the process of advertising. We don’t quite understand how it works, but we suspend disbelief and give ourselves over to it.
ON ADVERTISING

What is Twitchell’s view of morality in advertising?
He doesn't think it figures in advertising; advertising has only one moral and that is to buy stuff.
ON ADVERTISING

According to Jhally, what is the last way you should evaluate advertising?
Whether it tells the truth or not.
ON ADVERTISING

What does Twitchell think people are after in advertising?
Patterns that have to do with belonging, ordering, making sense.
ON ADVERTISING

How does Twitchell answer the question of whether advertising is art?
“Art is whatever I say it is.”
ON ADVERTISING

Where does Twitchell see power emanating from in religion?
More from the congregation than from behind the pulpit.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What idea was the gospel of the machine age?
Bolstering one’s brand name; the production of goods.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What consensus emerged about corporations in the 1980’s?
They were bloated, oversized, owned too much, employed too many.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What race were new companies such as Nike and Microsoft competing in?
Race toward weightlessness. Producing the most powerful images, as opposed to products.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What tools and materials are needed for creating a brand?
It requires an endless parade of brand extensions, continuously renewed imagery for marketing and, most of all, fresh new spaces to disseminate the brand's idea of itself.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What is the difference between the brand and the advertisement?
Think of the brand as the core meaning of the modem corporation, and of the advertisement as one vehicle used to convey that meaning to the world.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What was the first function of branding?
Bestow proper names on generic goods.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

According to adman Bruce Barton what was the role of advertising?
To help corporations find their soul.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

Where did the search for the true meaning of the brand take the agencies?
“Brand essence” = took the agencies away from individual products and their attributes and toward a psychological
anthropological examination of what brands mean to the culture and to people's lives.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

Why was the purchase of Kraft by Phillip Morris spectacular news for the ad world?
More than just a sales strategy: it was an investment in cold hard equity. The more you spend, the more your company is worth.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What did the radical shift in corporate philosophy towards the value of branding send manufactures to engage in?
Engaged in a cultural feeding frenzy to inflate brand names.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What does David Lubars call consumers?
They’re like roaches - you spray them and spray them and they get immune after a while.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What is the “experiential communication” industry?
A phrase used to encompass the strategy of branded pieces of corporate performance art and other “happenings” – INGENIOUS GIMMICKS.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What happened on “Marlboro Friday”?
A sudden announcement from Phillip Morris to slash prices 20% in an attempt to compete with bargain brands.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What was “Marlboro Friday” a culmination of?
Years of anxiety in the face of dramatic shifts in consumer habits that we seen as eroding the market share of household names.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What happened to corporate strategy as a result of the bargain craze of the early nineties?
Seemed smarter to put resources in price reductions and other incentives than into expensive ad campaigns.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

According to the agencies what would competing on the basis of real value lead to?
Not just death of brand, but corporate death as well.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

How did companies such as Coke, Pepsi, McDonald’s, Burger King and Disney respond to the brand crisis?
Integrated the ideas of branding into the very fabric of companies; became cultural accessories and cultural philosophies.

Escalated the brand crisis by not being phased.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

How did The Body Shop and Starbucks foster powerful brand identities?
Made their brand concept into a virus and sent it out in the culture via a variety of channels: sponsorship, controversy, experience, brand extensions, etc.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

According to Scott Bedbury what must brands establish?
Emotional ties.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What is the difference between advertising and branding?
Ad = about promoting a product.

Brand = corporate transcendence.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What was the new consensus that developed as a result of the success of the brand builders?
The products that will flourish in the future will be the ones presented not as commodities, but as concepts: the brand experience, as a lifestyle.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

How do brands present themselves on-line?
Free to soar; less as the disseminator of goods or services than as collective hallucinations.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

How does Tom Peters separate types of companies?
Top half: pure players in brainware (Coke, Microsoft, Disney)

Bottom half: lumpy object-purveyors.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

In the new context how did ad agencies present themselves to their clients?
On their ability to act as “brand stewards”: identifying, articulating, and protecting their corporate soul.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What does Phil Knight think Nike’s mission is?
Not to sell shoes, but to enhance people’s live through sports and fitness. To keep the manic of sports alive.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

According to John Hegarty, what is Polaroid?
A social lubricant.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

How does Tibor Kalman sum up the shifting role of the brand?
The original notion of the brand was quality, but now the brand is a stylistic badge of courage.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

According to Richard Branson, what do you build brands around?
Reputation; attributes not related directly to one product, but to a set of values.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

What is Tommy Hilfiger in the business of?
Less in business of manufacturing clothes than of signing his name.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

According to Paul Otellini, how is Intel like Coke?
One brand, many different products.
NEW BRANDED WORLD

According to Sam Hill, Jack McGrath and Sandeep Dayal what can also be branded?
An endless variety of commodities traditionally considered immune to the process.