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13 Cards in this Set

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"A process whereby people in groups, using the tools provided by their culture, create collective representations of reality."
Social Constructionist Perspective
the ways we've been taught to process information (language)
symbolic codes
the beliefs, attitudes, and values that make up our cultural traditions (how we process information)
cognitive customs
guide our actions. Has problems if: people differ in their cultural understandings. Ex. Generation Gaps
Set of roles and rules
Researchers who believe that human behavior is not so much cause as chosen: to accomplish their goals, people choose certain lines of action and follow certain rules laid down by their cultures.
Rules Approach
"A system of interlocking, interdependent behaviors that become patterned over time." (communication is like playing a game)
Pragmatic Perspective
Researchers are concerned with describing interdependent patterns of behavior rather than individual behavior.
Systems Approach
James Carey's...Messages are moved from place to place. (News) Individual Action-Psychological Model
Transmission side of communication
James Carey's...Movement of specific messages is less important than the representation and reproduction of specific beliefs of culture/society, "how we communicate to have a stronger community." (Mass) Culture context-Social constructionist Model
Ritual side of communication
Very Political, concentrated on power, not a model per se, because no unified description of the process of communication. Communication and power cannot be untangled.Project of cultural studies is to examine how power circulates through communication and media.
Cultural Studies Perspective
Hymes...students asked to copmare rules governing female speech with those governining male speech
Ethnography of Communication
Hymes speaking Model
Situation
Participants
Ends
Act
Keys
Instrumentalities
Norms
Genre
Rules of thumb that allow us to avoid careful information processing. "The argument seemed odd, but after all, the author did go to Harvard."
Heuristics