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62 Cards in this Set

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what is the most serious of the ubiquitous E.coli in the gut?
EHEC -enterohemorrhagic E. coli or VTEC -verotoxin producing E. coli (O157:H7 - most commonly isolated serotype). Contaminated meat products
if the tumor is in extrahepatic billiary tree what would it be (also second most common tumor in the liver after hepatocellular carcinoma)?
Cholangiocarcinoma
an esophageal motility disorder: The smooth muscle layer of the esophagus loses normal peristalsis (muscular ability to move food down the esophagus), and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) fails to relax properly in response to swallowing.
achalasia (achalasia and smoking are the risk factor for esophageal cancer)
what Rx blocks peptidoglycan?
vancomycin
what Rx inhibits nRNA synth (treatment of TB)?
rifampin
inhibition of cross-linking of peptidoglycan molecules by which Rx?
ampicillin
interfering with S50 ribosomal subunit. Rx?
Chloramphenicol
interfering with S30 ribosomal subunit. Rx?
Gentamicin (Aminoglycosides)
if Hep B vaccine contains surface Ag, what is going to be the response to it?
surface Ab will be produced and ONLY surface Ab will be present in a vaccinated individual, nothing else.
steatorrhea? what are you going to be deficient for?
fat soluble vitamins! (D.E.K.A)
sensitivity to gluten is seen with what dx?
celiac sprue
steatorrhea is seen with which dx?
celiac sprue (unmasked), cystic fibrosis (s&s early in life), short bowel syndrome (after surgery)
morphine (opiates) and its MOA in intestinal tract?
tonic contractions are stimulated (no propulsion though). So strong that opioids are chosen to treat diarrhea
treatment of intoxication with benzodiazepines (eg diazepam) is treated with?
flumazenil
iron toxicity treated with....?
deferoxamine
opioid toxicity is treated with....?
naloxone
organophosfate toxicity is treated with?
pralidoxime
what Rx binds with iron to form a complex that is the presence of oxygen would generate cytotoxic free radicals? used in chemo
bleomycin
preventing assembly of microtubules
vinblastine and vincristine
what Hep virus is to cause problems in babies born to an infected mother?
Heb B (not C)
what condition is associated with partioal reduction of glucuronyl transferase?
Gilbert dx
complete lack of guluronyl transferase is seen in what condition?
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
physiologic jaundice is present in neonates within what period?
within the first week only!
absence of progressive peristaltic contraction during swallowing, dilation, increased lower esophageal pressure is seen due to what?
malfunction of myenteric nerve plexus
MOA of immunosuppressive meds like methotrexate
it is folic acid analogue that competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, thus there is no reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate, which is biologically active
a component of Coenzyme A (also of fatty acid synthase) which functions in tranfer of acyl groups
pantothenic acid
precursor of folic acid (folic acid must be supplied with diet, humans can't synthesize folic acid)
PABA
folic acid has to be reduced to what to become active
tetrahydrofolate
remember that immunosuppressors are....
glucocorticoids
alfafetoprotein is a specific marker for what type of cancer?
hepatocellular carcinoma (lvels over 400microgramm/L are virtually diagnostic)
viral hepatitis would produce elevated levels of....?
transaminases
in an HIV pnt prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has to be initiated when the levels of CD4 count is....
below 200/mm3
withdrawal syndrome (fussy, jittery, etc) in neonate for a week after delivery is due to....
maternal abuse of barbiturates
withdrawal syndrome (vomiting, sweating, convulsions, respiratory alkalosis) in neonates for the first 72 hours due to ...
maternal abuse of heroin
B12 deficiency leads to... vit B12 is absorbed in..... problems with ... will also lead to bile acids reabsorption which will lead to .....
megaloblastic anemia....distal ileum... distal ileum.....steatorrhea
aspirin poisoning takes place in two steps. what are they?
early respiratory alkalosis followed by a later metabolic acidosis
delayed emptying of gastric contents in the absence of mechanical obstruction is...
gastroparesis. DM and scleroderma are also associated with the condition T6-L1 level dysfunction)
contaminated fried rice is a classic source of... that is....
Bacillus cereus....an aerobic gram pos bacilli (resolves within 24 hours) vomiting first (after 1 hour), diarrhea after (8 hrs later)
canned food can be contaminated with...?
Clostridium botulinum (spores)
Cramps and diarrhea 8-20 hours after injestion... what is the likely agent?
Clostridium perfringens
associated with gastric acid hypersecrition and gastric ulcers
Zollinger -Ellison syndrome - a non-beta islet cell tumor that produces gastrin (usu gastrin gets elevated due to secretin secretion after a meal, but with tumors gastrin is elevated and doesn't increase after meal) Pancreas is the most common site for such tumor
intoxication with what substance manifests paranoia, combativeness, increased pain tolerance?
PCP
amphetamine and cocaine
pupillary dilation
organophosphates are inhibitors of...
acetylcholinesterase (thus, what effect from its inhibition one would get? urination, lacrimation, salivation, bronchispast, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, bradycardia, miosis (pinned)
organophosphate poisoning is treated with? s&s-> SLUD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation)
apropine, pralidoxime as well
benzodiazepine poisoning?
flumazanil
ethylene glycol poisoning?
ethanol as an antidote
chelation of metals (lead, arsenic, iron)
dimercaptol
biopsy of small bowel? what is it if they found flattening of the lining of the small intestine (called villous atrophy)
Celiac dx! Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gliadin, a gluten protein found in wheat (and similar proteins of the tribe Triticeae which includes other cultivars such as barley and rye). Upon exposure to gliadin, the enzyme tissue transglutaminase modifies the protein, and the immune system cross-reacts with the bowel tissue, causing an inflammatory reaction.
s&s of Celiac dx:
chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive (in children), fatigue, flatulence, foul smelling stool with increased amounts of fat in it. Eliminate wheat (it has gliadin)
s&s of cocaine OD
grandiosity, agitation, dilated pupils, euphoria, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia
s&s of heroin OD
depressed state of respiration, slurred speech, pinned pupils, bradycardia,
opioids intoxication? threat with:
naloxone; (N-acetylcysteine->if acetaminophen OD, iron toxicity->deferoxamine, benxodiazepines->flumazenil, organophosphates->pralidoxime
significant weight loss, occasional constipation, possible blood loss. This pattern suggests? not diverticulitis (no weight loss but consitpation), not amebiasis (usu diarrhea)
colon cancer (usually adenocarcinoma is a cancer that originates in glandular tissue. This tissue is also part of a larger tissue category known as epithelial tissue. Epithelial tissue includes skin, glands and a variety of other tissue that lines the cavities and organs of the body. Epithelium is derived embryologically from ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. To be classified as adenocarcinoma, the cells do not necessarily need to be part of a gland, as long as they have secretory properties.
of all polyp types which ones are considered to be premalignant? (hyperplastic, juvenile, tubular, villous)
villous and tubular have pre-neoplastic potential, yet villous malignant potential is far superior than tubular
which antibiotic renders pnt sun-sensitive?
tetracycline-(via inhibition of bacterial translation by binding to 30S ribosomal subunit) Other Rx and SE: (gentamicin- ototoxicity, metronidazole-headache, penicillin-hemolytic anemia,
block transpeptidase cross linking of bacterial cell wall
penicillin and cefotaxime
formation of toxic metabolites within bacterial cell via reduction reactions
metronidazole
analog of folic acid that acts by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase
trimethoprim
in hibition of bacterial ribosomal translation by binding to 50S subunit?
erythromycin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin
moderate fever, leukocytosis, minimally elevated billirubin (need bile to be normal).. what is happening?
acute cholecystitis (acute hep?->transaminase up; acute cholangitis(bile duct inflmn?->huge surge of alkaline phosphatase; biliary colic->no constant pain or fever, or leukocytosis)
coarse feature and enlarged internal organs?
mucopolysaccharidosis - inability to catabolize glycoproiten, thus mucopolysaccharides accumulate in skin-> coarse feature and enlargement of internal organs