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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
application of pressure or massage, or both, to usual acupuncture sites
technique that used long thin needles to prick specific parts of the body to produce insensitivity to pain
Acute Pain
episode of pain that lasts for seconds to less than 6 months
ingoing: traveling toward a center. sensory neurons which carry messages to the central nervous system (CNS), are afferent
Analgesic Drug
pharmaceutical agent used to relieve pain
A neuron's efferent segment; it conducts impulses away from the cell body
Brief Pain
pain that passes quickly; synonym for transient pain
Cutaneous stimulation
pain relief modalities that utilize stimulation of the skin by massage, application of heat and cold, vibration, and pressure
Contra lateral stimulation
stimulation to an area opposite the affected area
Continuous Pain
pain that does not stop
Chronic Pain
episodes of pain that last 6 months or longer, pain may be continuous or intermittent
Diffuse Pain
pain that covers a large area
A neuron's fine, free-branching afferent segments; they conduct impulses to the cell body
A skin area innervated by sensory neurons that share the same spinal nerve root; each dermatome corresponds to a specific spinal cord level
Dorsal Horn
The posterior portion of the spinal cord's gray matter, to which sensory nerve fibers are attached. Also called the posterior horn, the dorsal horn receives sensory impulses from the body and relays them towards the brain
Dull Pain
growing discomfort less intense and acute than sharp pain
Outgoing: traveling away from the center. Motor neurons, which carry messages away from the CNS, are efferent. An axon, which carries impulses away from the cell body, is a neuron's efferent segment
Pain receptors; free nerve endings sensitive to painful mechanical, thermal, electrical, or chemical stimuli
sensation of physical or mental suffering or hurt which usually causes distress or agony to the one experiencing it
Pain Threshold
amount of stimulation required before a person experiences the sensation of pain
Pain Tolerance
point beyond which a person is no longer willing to endure pain (i.e. pain of greater duration or intensity)
Phantom Pain
sensation of pain without demonstrable physiologic or pathologic substance; commonly observed after amputation of a limb
Latin word meaning "I shall please"; an inactive substance that gives satisfaction to the person using it
Psychological Pain
pain for which no physical cause can be identified
Referred Pain
pain in an area removed from that in which stimulation has its origin
to become less rigid, to slacken effort and to decrease tension
Severe Pain
pain that could be described as being between 8-10 on a scale of 1-10; synonym for excruciating pain
Sharp Pain
quick, sticking and intense discomfort
Shifting Pain
discomfort that moves from one area to another
Slight Pain
pain that could be described as being between 1-3 on a scale of 1-10; synonym for mild pain
Somatic Pain
pain originating in the structures in the body's external wall
Spinothalamic tract
An ascending spinal cord pathway leading to the reticular formation of the brain stem and frontal lobe. This tract is associated with transmission of dull, aching and burning pain sensations
Substantia gelantinosa
Small, densely packed cells within the dorsal horn involved in pain impulse modulation
The space between neurons (or between a neuron and a muscle or organ) that a nerve impulse must cross for transmission to occur. It's also called the synaptic cleft
Definition of Pain
"Pain is an unpleasant sensory & emotional experience that is associated with or described in terms of either potential or actual tissue damage"
Pain is a complex phenomenon
-colored by culture and environment
-the meaning pain has to the client
Two major aspects:
-Pain & the associated suffering
Involvement of social issues
-pain of childbirth vs. appendicitis
The Decade of Pain Control & Research
Mandated Pain be considered the 5th vital sign in January 2001
Compulsory for health care professionals practicing in an accredited facility to enquire about, measure, and treat pain as they would temperature, blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate.
How do we define pain?
-nursing definition
Physiological Definition of Pain
Medical: Mountcastle defines pain as "that sensory experience evoked by stimuli that injure or threaten to destroy tissue"
The "Anatomy of Ouch". "Any sensation that is amplified to an uncomfortable level..."
Psychological Definition of Pain
This definition focuses on pain as something that belongs to the client and often does have a protective component
Nursing's Definition of Pain
Marco McCaffrey defines pain as "whatever the experiencing person says it is and existing whenever the person says it does"
This definition makes the client the expert on his or her pain
It is subjective but the nurse is responsible for accurately assessing and appropriately responding to the client's pain
Types of Pain & Their Etiology
1. Nociceptive Pain
-pain caused by damage to somatic or visceral tissue
2. Neuropathic Pain
-pain caused by nervous system damage
3. Psychogenic Pain (Idiopathic Pain)
-pain without organic pathology
Nociception is the activation of the primary afferent nerves with peripheral terminals (free nerve endings) that respond differently to noxious (tissue-damaging) stimuli
Nociceptors function primarily to sense and transmit pain signals
Nociception: may or may not be perceived as pain, depending on a complex interaction within the nociceptive pathways
Classifications of pain - Nociceptive Pain
Response to tissue damage
1. Somatic:
-deep somatic
2. Visceral - Organ
Usually responds well to opiods or nonopiods
Has protective function (to guard incisions
Somatic Pain
Deep Somatic: Pain resulting from injury to connective tissue, bones & muscles
-generally an aching & well localized pain
-may produce nausea
-frequently associated with diaphoresis & blood pressure changes
Examples of Deep Somatic Pain
Ligaments, joints, fascia, tendons, & muscle all vary in the number of nerves serving the area
Muscular pain usually occurs in association with stretching , ischemia, or forceful contractile activity. Injury to muscle causes the release of lactic acid & other chemicals (neurotransmitters) that increase pain
Somatic Pain: Superficial
Pain resulting from stimulation of the skin
Sharp stinging sensation
Nociceptive Pain - Visceral Pain
Occurs in any of the large body organs occupying any body cavity
-pelvic cavity
Diffuse, poorly localized, vague, dull
-ex: acute appendicitis
Exception: If the cause is a tumor within an organ - pain may be localized
Mechanics Involved in Transmission of Nociceptive Stimuli: Neurotransmitters
-Affect the speed of impulse
-Substance P (increases)
-Prostaglandin (increases)
-Seratonin (decreases)
Mechanics Involved in Transmission of Nociceptive Stimuli: Neuromodulators
-Affect the intensity of the sensation
-Bradykinin (increases)
-Histamine (increases)
-Endorphins (decrease)
-Norepinephrine (decreases)
Neuropathic Pain
Caused by nervous system damage
Lesions that cause neuropathic pain can occur at any location in the pain pathway
Damage to peripheral nerves (PNS) as well as lesions of the spinal cord (CNS)
No protective function
Pain disproportionate to degree of damage
Examples of Neuropathic Pain
Diabetic Neuropathy
Postherpetic neuralgia (shingles): involves scarring & degenerative changes to the spinal cord, ganglia, nerve truncks and skin
Phantom pain: not completely undrstood - noted after amputation of a body part
-can be a sensation or severe pain (itching, tingling, pressure, pins & needles
This does not occur in client who maintain the feeling they can move the phantom limb voluntarily
Idiopathic Pain
Pain without organic pathology
Clients experiencing psychogenic pain have real pain experience
Newly accepted diagnostic tool
-thermography which measures temperature of surfact tissue to reflect blood flow