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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Communication
the sending and receiving of information, ideas, feelings, and messages
Define Language
a socially shared code that is written or spoken
Define Speech
the oral expression of language
How are speech and language "separate but equal" aspects of communication?
You can have speech without language and language without speech.
6 steps of the speech chain
1. the brain thinks of what to say
2. the thought is sent to the mouth
3. the thought is spoken
4. the listener hears the thought/sees the nonverbals (gestures)
5. the thought is sent to the brain to process
6. the listener replies
is an innate language reservoir filled with information
Motherese or baby talk
*the caregiver uses higher pitch when speaking
*makes overexpressed faces when talking
Piaget's 4 stages of intellectual development
1. sensorimotor (birth-2 years)
2. preoperational (2-7 years)
3. concrete (7-11 years)
4. formal/operational (11+ years)
6 concepts and behaviors that are central to early cognitive development
1. object permanence
2. means end
3. casualty

1. initiation
2. play
3. communication
Why is Vygotksy's theory referred to as a sociocultural theory of cognitive development?
The child needs social interactions with others (adults and children their age). By the child interacting it allows them to broaden their vocabulary and learn how to interact with others well.
Overextension using "ball"
The child believes that everything round is a ball. So, an apple, an orange, or anything else round is a ball.
Underextension using "chair"
The child believes that just the chair in the kitchen is a chair. The chair in the living room is not a chair because the chair in the kitchen is THE chair
the smallest meaningful unit of language
Free morpheme
a word that can stand on its own; like dog, cat, or ball
Bound morpheme
a word that cannot stand alone, but must be connected to a free morpheme; like dogS, catS
Mean Length Utterance

MLC= # of morphemes/ # of utterances
unintentional and nonverbal, the child smiles for no reason
intentional and nonverbal, the child smiles because someone is smiling at them
What is the role of the child's caregiver during stage 1 of language development
The role of the caregiver is to encourage the child's language. Point things out and tell them what it is. Tell them an action while doing the action so that when you tell them to "sit" they know what you mean.
Largest % of the first fifty words are what
specific nominals (25-26 words, 51%)
the smallest meaningful unit of language
the smallest distinctive unit of sound
Anaphoric Reference
a pronoun used to refer to something in a previous utterance
a primitive story about something that has happened to the child
a term used to describe speech sound changes that occur when the shape of the base morpheme changes
the ability to use language to analyze and understand language
Children add an average of ____ new words every day between the ages of 18 months and 6 years
Slobin Principle
children will use what they already know to learn something new
3 factors that must be present to assure the development of efficient literacy skills
1. provide literate home environment
2. read to the child
3. model reading
A 5 year old maintains a topic an average of ____ turns while an adult maintains a topic an average of ___ turns
5, 11
Tag Questions
questions added to the end of a statement

ex: "This cupcake is good, isn't it?"
Order of acquisition of wh questions
1. what
2. where
3. who
4. when
5. how
6. why
What does it mean to repair in conversation
when the speaker realizes the person they are talking to does not understand what they are talking about; so, they reword what they just said.
comparing two things in contrast

ex: "He's a cow"
comparing two things using words "like" or "as"

ex: "He chews like a cow"
an expression that is peculiar to a particular people or region

ex: "I put my foot in my mouth"
a wise or ancient saying

ex: "An apple a day will keep the doctor away."
telling a past experience in response to a request
describing a current or future event
telling a past experience that is spontaneous
Fictionalized narrative
story that can be believable, but is a made up story
using different ways of communicating with different people

ex: "If you do that again I am going to hurt you."
individual variations within phonemes
Age at which the first word appears
12 months
Age at which the first two word phrase appears
18 months
the influence that sounds have on one another in context
a combination of two vowel sounds within the same syllable
another name for cause
Variables that influence language and language variations
*race, ethnicity
*social class, education, occupation
*situation or context
*peer group association
*first language community/culture
Consonants are classified according to...
1. place of articulation
2. manner of articulation
3. voicing characters
How are vowels classified?
1. height of tongue
2. location of primary resonance
3. tension of tongue
4. lip rounding
____% of the population have speech, language, and hearing problems
There are between ___ and ____ languages spoken "on this planet"
All dialects of American English are considered acceptable
What are the 4 symptoms of disordered speech?
1. phonological disorders
2. Language impairments
3. voice disorders
4. fluency disorders
Cognate pair
They are voiced and unvoiced consonant pairs. For example, "p" and "b" are both produced the same way, but "p" is unvoiced and "b" is voiced
Are phonetically consistent forms of words that are used between 9 and 12 months. An example would be the child calling a blanket a bebe
Ethnolinguistic community
A community that exposes children to a second language. A majority of ethnolinguistic communities is where the language is used by a strong majority of the citizens.