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43 Cards in this Set

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What two ways do we understand each other even with such marked differences in our anatomy?
listeners apply "templates"
timbre and pitch serve as cues
When trying to adapt to new speakers, our brain might be looking at what?
The ratios between the frequencies of their speech and comparing it to another person's we've heard that may be broadly similar
When the production of the vowel is influenced by the sounds that are adjacent to it.
coarticulation
When the corner vowels are undershot or not quite achieved when the person is producing normal speech.
vowel neutralization
Why is the undershoot referred to as vowel neutralization?
Because the position of the tongue is a little closer to the neutral vowel (shwa) in the middle of the vocal tract.
What is a common disorder in which the vowels will be under-articulated too much?
dysarthrias
What can a clinician look at to get a reflection of overall intelligibility?
vowel space area within the vowel quadrilateral
When treating a patient and looking at the vowel quadrilateral, an increase in overall space would be reflective of what?
larger articulator movements (typically associated with improved speech intelligibility)
A reflection of how much variability there can be in the first and second formants as you produce that vowel in different contexts.
vowel ellipses
Why do we use vowel ellipses?
Tho show that the frequencies can vary around the central or ideal target but it's still an acceptable version of that vowel.
What are the most common vowels across languages?
/i/, /u/, /a/
Languages tend to have between __ and __ vowels?
3, 9
The common vowels have _________ spacing that tends to put them at the ______ of the vowel quadrilateral. This means that they are more __________ from each other and gives the _______ a better chance to __________ one from another.
acoustic
edge
distinctive
brain
separate
The changes in F1 and F2 when you go from a consonant to a vowel or vice versa.
formant transitions
While observing the articulators of a __________ person, you will see that they don't ______ ____ for very long. They are in almost __________ __________. This means that we are __________ phonemes into each other.
talking
stay put
constant motion
blending
An ordinary vowel is called a _____________ and has a relatively _______ _______ ________ that is maintained for a period of time.
monophthong
clear steady state
A _____________ is defined by its change. The ________ __________ will change during production.
diphthong
formant frequencies
The __________ is the starting frequency before the movement begins. The __________ is the ending frequency after you've finished making the _________.
onglide
offglide
diphthong
In between the onglide and offglide is the ___________ when the formants are ___________.
transition
changing

/oi/, /au/, /ai/
What are three things that make vowels similar to each other?
voiced
vocal tract relatively open
identified by formant patterns
This type of consonant forms a complete closure of the vocal tract.
stops
This type of consonant constricts the flow of air that is coming through the vocal tract.
fricatives
Many consonants have some degree of ________ in their production.
noise
What makes an important distinction between oral consonants and nasal consonants?
whether or not the velopharyngeal port is open
There is far more potential for things to ____ _________ with consonants. There is greater __________ and ___________ involved in the timing and physical __________ of these sounds.
go wrong
complexity
precision
articulation
SLPs will spend more of their time treating errors in __________ production than _________ production.
consonant
vowel
What consonants fall into the obstruent category?
stops/stop-plosive
fricatives
affricates

Some sort of obstruction.
What consonants fall into the non-obstruents?
nasals
glides/semivowels/approximants
liquids

Do not completely block off the vocal tract, but have some form of constriction.
What is another name for non-obstruents?
sonorant
If a stop is accurately articulated, there will be a _____ instance during which there will be no ________ in the vocal tract. During the closure, _____ __________ builds up behind the point of __________ and then as the _________ is ___________, this air ________ out.
brief
sound
air pressure
constriction
closure
released
bursts
When the articulators move from having formed the stop to the upcoming vowel.
period of transition
The stop closure is also sometimes called the _____ ____. It's characterized by a ______ of ________ during the time that the articulatory ___________ is being formed. This is most easily seen if the _____ occurs between ________.
stop gap
lack
energy
constriction
stop
vowels
If the stop is produced at the beginning of a word, it would be very __________ in many cases to see the _________ __________ ____________ because of the lack of ________ prior to the formation of the stop.
difficult
stop closure duration
energy
What is the usual duration of a stop closure?
50-150 milliseconds
When you listen to a person speaking, stop gaps (brief moments of silence) are not really ___________ _________.
perceptually obvious
At the very bottom of a spectrogram while viewing a stop, you'll see what's called a __________ ________ - some grey trace there that indicates a very ____ ____________.
voicing bar
low frequency
The voicing bar corresponds to the ___________ of the ________ __________ which is continuing even after the stop has been formed by __________ the tongue against the __________ ________.
socillation
vocal folds
raising
alveolar ridge
The voiceless stops have a __________ closure duration and the voiced stops have a _________ closure duration.
longer
shorter
We can measure and document changes in things like ______ __________ duration as an index of ___________ adequacy.
stop closure
articulatory
During the time that the constriction is formed, ____ ________ builds up behind the ____________.
air pressure
constriction
Once the constriction is released, the pressure that has built up behind it _________ air out through the _______ that is now gradually opening. First we get a small ___________ which is a rather sharp ________ of air.
forces
space
transient
burst
The transient (burst) is a very ______ event. Then the _________ continues while the __________ is becoming wider and wider - the air is still ___________ through it. It is forming __________ because the airflow is still relatively ______ - the pressure has not yet __________ to match that of the _____________ around the speaker.
brief
frication
rushing
turbulence
high
decreased
atmosphere
Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish between what two things on the spectrogram?
transient and frication interval