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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the general function of the cochlea?
to translate the mechanical vibrations of the stapes into neural responses in the auditory branch of the 8th nerve.
The process of translating mechanical repsonses into neural ones is greatly dependent on the ?
BM
Bekesy's Traveling Wave found that vibratory responses of the BM were not changed when: (4)
Which implies?
elasticity of round window changed
length of cochlear canal changed
position of stapes changed
nature of fluid changed,
The characteristics of the BM are of utmost importance
Bekesy compared the motion of the BM like the one that occurs when you (give example), and the wave oscillates at the frequency of ______
flick a rope/garden hose, stimulation
Traveling Wave Characteristics
-always starts at the base of the cochlea and moves towards the apex
-amplitude changes as it traverses the length of the cochlea
-this all depends on the change in stiffness along the BM
What is an envelope of the BM?
curbe that shows the amplitude of the traveling wave at each point
The envelope of the BM has a _____ and _____ side, but the _______ is where the stereocilia gets pushed over in the right direction to get a neural response.
positive, negative, positive
High frequencies have peak amplitudes at the _____ cochlea
base
Low frequencies have peak amplitudes at the _____ cochlea
apex
Bekesy Traveliing Wave Conclustions:
-Mechanical properties of BM make it respond at different positions to different freq
-The BM can 'decompose' a complex sound into its component frequencies
-and high and low go to base, apex respectively
The motion of the stapes leads to ______ and ______ of the BM
compressions and rarefactions
Decribe a compression of the BM:
Stapes pushes inward during compression
this generates a pressure gradient on either side of cochlea partition (SM).
The pressure is greater in the SV than ST and causes the Reissner's Membrane and the BM to bend towards the ST (down).
Fluids push round window out towards middle ear.
Decribe a rarefaction of the BM:
As stapes moves back towards middle ear, movement of the BM is away from the ST (up).
Vibratory action of stapes is coupled with BM. Each time stapes pushes in the BM is pushed _____ ST, each time stapes backs out, the BM pulls _____ from the ST
toward, away
With the compressions and rarefactions, one might expect the ______ to offer an alternative route, but it actually acts as if it were ______
heliocotrema, closed
The heliocotrema functions as a _____ ______ in the perilymphatic space of the cochlea.
static balance
Remember the BM is _____ at the apex and more _____ at teh apex. Because of this, different stimulus frequencies will cause _________ ________ ________ at different points along the BM.
wider, flaccid, maximum vibration amplitide
The response of the BM is a _______ ________
traveling wave
If points of max displacement of successive temproral sequences of instantaneous wave forms are plotted the result is ____________
an envelope.
The BM is attached to the ____ and the ____, therefore it is moved in a _______ and ________ fashion.
OSL and spiral ligament, radial, longitudinal.
A single traveling wave moves from the ____ to the _____ of the cochlea.
base to the apex
the radial and longitudinal movement causes a ______ action of the hair cells.
shearing
the most distinctive relationship between the _____ and ______ frequncy
maximum, excitatory
the _____ theory is where each point along the basilar membrane develops a maximum of displacement that is associated with a specific frequency of excitation
place
most traveling waves is from the ______ force or _____, this is ______ in the cochlea, which is what we call the _____ _____ _______.
driving, source, not true, traveling wave paradox
______ frequencies have maximum displacement towards the apex
lower
_____ frequencies have maximum displacement towards the base
higher
remember the BM is stiffer at the _____
base
the BM is wider at the _____
apex
Changes in radii during compression and rarefaction and
offset pivot points between the tectorial membrane and the BM are the two princliples that account for
the shearing mechanism associated with teh cilia at the apexes