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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 theories of phonation
-neurochronaxic theory
-myloelastic-aerodynamic theory
-cover-body theory
Neurochronaxic theory
problem with lengths of recurrent laryngeal nerve
Myloelastic-aerodynamic theory
3 components:
-sub-glottal pressure
-Bernoulli effect
-tissue force (recoil)
rate of flow
rate of airflow through a tube will increase at the point of constriction
Bernoulli effect
as velocity of flow increases, pressure must decrease; so long as total energy remains a constant
-pressure is perpendicular to the direction of the flow
- d x 1/2(v^2p) = c
Cover-body theory
two mass model of vocal folds --
-upper mass = cover
-lower mass = body
-masses act separately but appear to be connected by a spring
Glottal cycle
2 phases:
-open phase: opening & closing phases
-closed phase
jitter
timing variability between glottal cycles
shimmer
amplitude variability between glottal cycles
rocking laryngeal muscles
-transverse arytenoid
-oblique arytenoid
-LCA
rotating laryngeal muscles
LCA (adducts)
PCA (abducts)
gliding laryngeal muscle
thyromuscularis
attack
process of adducting the folds
simultaneous attack
adduction and onset of respiration occur simultaneously
-ex. "zip"
breathy attack
respiration starts before folds are adducted
-ex. "harry"
glottal attack
adduct folds before respiration starts
-ex. "okay"
termination
abducting the vocal folds
perceptual
what is heard
acoustic
what is measured with an instrument
pitch
measured as a fundamental frequency
- Hertz; Hz
loudness
measured as intensity
- deciBels; dB
length
measured as duration

- milliseconds; ms
(interspeaker pitch changing element)
as length increases...
frequency of vibration decreases
-if mass and tension are constant
(intraspeaker pitch changing element)
as tension increases...
frequency of vibration increases
(intraspeaker pitch changing element)
as mass increases...
frequency of vibration decreases
(intraspeaker pitch changing element)
as sub-glottal pressure increases...
there is a slight increase in frequency of vibration
1st pitch raising mechanism
-cricothyroid - tilts thyroid cartilage forward
2nd pitch raising mechanism
thyroarytenoid (thyrovocalis) - tenses the vocal fold
3rd pitch raising mechanism
PCA - prevents anterior sliding of arytenoids
4th pitch raising mechanism
increase in sub-glottal pressure
1st pitch lowering mechanism
passive lowering - tissue elasticity
2nd pitch lowering mechanism
active lowering - thyroarytenoid (thyromuscularis)
3rd pitch lowering mechanism
decrease in sub-glottal pressure
optimal pitch
vocal fold vibration that is optimal or most efficient and appropriate for an individual
-varies by age, gender, size
male, female and child optimal pitch averages
male - 125 Hz
female - 210 Hz
child - 300-400 Hz
habitual pitch
fundamental frequency habitually used during speech - ideally the same as optimal pitch
pitch range
difference between the lowest and highest fundamental frequencies
-about 2 octaves normally
modal
normal voicing
breathy (murmur)
vocal folds are held loosely & somewhat abducted, but still vibrate; air escapes even during the closed phase
whispering
vocal folds are very tense and somewhat abducted, but do not vibrate; sound comes from turbulence in the air stream
creaky
arytenoid cartilages held so tightly the vocal folds only vibrate on a small anterior portion