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79 Cards in this Set

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What is language?
Nelson: Language is the "socially shared code that uses a conventional system of arbitrary symbols to represent ideas about the world and are meaningful to others who know the same code".
What are the 3 domains of language?
Content (meaning)
Form (how words and sounds are organized)
Use (draw upon function to meed personal and social needs)
What are the characteristics of language?
Socially shared
Code that uses a system of arbitrary symbols
Language code is conventional
Representational tool
What is a morpheme?
The smallest unit of language that carries meaning (dog)
What is a referent?
The aspect of the world to which a word refers
Modularity
A cognition science theory about how the human mind is organized within the brain structures. It contends that the brain contains a set of highly specific modules developed to process specific types of information.
Speech
Neuromuscular process by which we turn language into a sound signal that is transmitted through the air to a reciever.
Hearing
sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be processed by the human brain.
Communication
The process of sharing information among individuals.
Speech is precise activation of muscles in 4 systems
Respiration
Phonation
Resonation
Articulation
Model of speech production
3 stage process
Preceptual event
Motor Schema
Speech output/ongoing feedback
Preceptual event
initiated with an abstract representation
representation provides a preceptual target of what is to be produced in speech
code is represented at the phoneme level
Phoneme
The smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning /m/ + /a/= "ma"
Motor Schema
Rough motor plan based on the preceptual target
organizes phonemes into syllable chunks
Speech output (production)
Flow of air, vibration of vocal folds, and movements of the oral cavity carry out motor schema and create speech.
Hearing is essential to both_______ and ____________ of spoken language.
reception
comprehension
4 acustic events
creation of sound source
vibration of air particles (frequency, intensity)
reception by ear
comprehension by brain
Co-articulation
overlap of phonemes in the production of strings of speech sounds
4 processes of communication
formulation
transmission
reception
comprehension
Symbolic communication or referential communication
arbitrary relationship between the entity and its referent. Eg. A 1 year old says bottle to request something to drink.
Pre-intentional communication
relationship between a communicative behavior and its referent is assumed by others eg. A baby crying. Could be for a number of reasons
Intentional or Iconic communication
transparent (not arbitrary) relationship between the message and its referent eg. A baby points to his bottle
3 basic purposes of communication
to request
to reject
to comment
3 components of communication
1. A sender formulates and transmits a message
2. A receiver receives and comprehends to message
3. A shared symbolic system
3 types of feedback
1. Linguistic (speaking)
2. Nonlinguistic (eye contact etc.)
3. Paralinguistic (use of pitch, loudness, pausing)
Lexicon
Vocabulary System
Contextualized
Language that focuses on the immediate context (present)
Decontextualized
Language with little reliance on the context for conveying content (events that are removed from the present)
5 components of Content, Form and Use
Semantics (Content)
Syntax (Form)
Morphology (Form)
Phonology (Form)
Pragmatics (Use)
What are some remarkable features of language?
Rate of acquisition
Universiality
Species specific
Semanticity
Productivity
Engine of thought
Critical period
first 5-7 years
What are some factors that influence language acquisition?
Language learned
Gender
Temperament
Language learning environment
Genetic predisposition
Developmental disability
Injury or illness
What 3 question need to be included in an adequate language theory?
1. What do infants bring to the task of language learning?
2. What mechanisms drive language acquisition?
3. What types of input drive the language learning system?
B. F. Skinner
Nurture-Behaviorist Theory
All learning is the result of operant conditioning. (consequences of behavior shape subsequent behavior)
Discrete trial training (DTT)
A series of distinct trials that the adult repeats until the child masters the skill.
Lev Vygotsky
Nurture Inspired-Social interactionist Theory
Importance of social interaction in a child's language development
ZPD
Jean Piaget
Nurture-Cognitive theory
Genetic epistemology (study of the development of knowledge)
series of stages
achievements in one stage must occur prior to moving to the next stage (cognition hypothesis)
Nurture inspired theories
Behaviorist theory (Skinner)
Social interactionist theory (Vygotsky)
Cognitive theory (Piaget)
Intentionality model (Bloom)
Competition model (MacWhinney)
Usage-based theory (Tomasello)
Nature inspired theories
Modularity theory (Fodor)
Universal grammar (Chomsky)
Synthetic bootstrapping (Gleitman)
Connectionists theories (Rumelhart & McClelleand)
Behaviorist theory
Nurture-Skinner
Operant conditioning
Reinforcement
Social interactionist theory
Nurture-Vygotsky
Social plane-psychological plane
ZPD
Language and cognition are intertwined processes that seperate at age 2
Cognitive theory
Nurture-Piaget
Cognitive hypothesis (cognition precedes language)
Egocentric speech
Intentionality model
Nurture-Bloom
the tension between wanting to communicate intentions and the effort required deives language development
Competition model
Nurture-MacWhinney
Reliable input strenghthens representation
Usage-based theory
Nurture-Tomasello
Joint attention
Intention reading
Children attend to others intentions and imitate
Modularity theory
Nature-Fodor
Localization-language is organized in highly specific modules
Encapsulization-language modules perform specific functions and also interact
Universal Grammar
Nature-Chomsky
Language acquisition device-born with general rules and categories common to all languages
Parameters-Use input to discover the parameters
Syntactic bootstrapping
Nature-Gleitman
Children use their knowledge of syntax to make inferences about the meaning of new words
Semantic bootstrapping
Nature-Pinker
Children use their knowledge of word meaning to make inferences about syntax
Connectionist theories
Nature-Rumelhart & McClelland
Nodes and connections undergo transformation in response to input
2 ways to teach a second language
audiolingual-rote responses
silent way-hypothesize about rules-apply them-discover errors
3 practices informed by theories
Prevention
Intervention and remediation
Enrichment
What is semantic development?
an individual's learning and storage of the meaning of words
What are the 3 major tasks of the language learner? (semantic)
1. acquire mental lexicon of 60,000 words
2. acquire new words rapidly
3. organize the mental lexicon in an effecient semantic network
What is Nelson's semantic taxonomy?
Specific
Examples of specific nomials
Dad, Annie, Rover
Examples of general nomials
truck, cat
Examples of modifiers
big, mine
Examples of personal-social words
yes, bye bye
Fast mapping
rate at which children learn new words
What is morphological development?
Internalization of the rules of language that govern the structure of words.
Grammatical morpheme
adds grammatical inflections to words
plural s
possessive 's
present progressive ing
Derivational morphemes
change the syntactic class and semantic meaning
prefixes
suffixes
Bound morphemes
Must be attached to another morpheme
Free morphemes
Can stand alone-words with a clear semantic referent
What is syntactic development?
Internalization of the rules of language that govern how words are organized into sentences.
What are the 3 major syntactic developments?
increase in utterance length
increase in sentence variety
development of a complex syntax
Mean length of utterance (MLU)
provides a simple proxy for estimating syntactic complexity up to 5 years of age
Clause
a syntactic structure containing a verb or verb phrase
Auxiliary Clarification Hypothesis (ACH)
Children more readily attend to information at the beginning of an utterance
Exposure to high frequencies of yes-no questions promotes children's internalizationof auxiliary verbs
What is phonological development?
acquiring the rules of language that govern the sound structure of syllables and words
Phonemes
individual speech sounds
Phonological representation
neurological imprint
Allophone
subtle variation of a phoneme
phonotactics
rules governing how sounds are organized in words eg. /g/ never follows an /s/
7 purposes of communication
instrumental-ask for something
regulatory-give directions and direct others
interactional-interact in a social way
personal-express a state of mind
heuristic-find out information and inquire
imaginative-tell stories and role play
informative-describe an event or object
approaches scientists use to study three aspects of language development
speech perception-head turn preference procedure-MRI
language production-normative studies-observational (natural or semistructured) or experimental (actively manipulate variables)
language comprehension-visual fixation-pointing
spreading activation
how an individual accesses specific entries in the semantic network
the rapidity with which a child develops a more adult like understanding of a word is influenced by...
concept represented by the word
phonological form of the word
contextual conditions at initial exposure