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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When messages contradict, _______ are more believable.
nonverbals
Movements and gestures that that replace spoken messages are called ______.
emblems
Are emblems cross-cultural?
No.
expressions of feeling of emotion are called ____.
affective display
_______ manage an interaction (kinesic movement that helps start, stop, maintain interaction)
Regulators
______ help group members adapt, satisfy personal needs (tension release, comfort)
Adaptors
3 kinds of Adaptors:
1. self : fidgeting
2. object: necklace, clothes
3. altar: touching others
What is territoriality?
how animals stake out and defend given areas.
Higher/lower status individuals generally attempt to claim more territory
Higher
When people are seated in a circle they are more like to talk to those across from them or people on either side of them?
across
_____ tend to sit closer to others.
Women
3 Approaches to time
1) flexible
2) separation
3) concurrency
the __________ approach to time sets fewer deadlines and provides groups and members more autonomy.
flexible
the _______ approach group separates themselves from others when working on a group task
separation
using the _______ approach, groups multitask and combine projects and activities
concurrency approach
Using the flexible approach, what should the group pay attention to?
monitor deadlines closely
Using the separation approach, what should the group pay attention to?
ensure you odn't separate yourselves so far from the organization that you lose sign of the organizational goals.
Using the concurrency approach, what should a group be aware of/
need added structure and a system to keep track of varoius projects
Is gesturing highly correlated with being a leader?
yes
T/F Perceived leaders use shoulder and arm gestures more often?
T
What do persuasive communicators exhibit more of?
use more animated facial expressions, use more gestures to emphasize their points, and nod their heads more.
People trying to project warm, friendly images will be more likely to _____, be less ______, and more like to _______________.
smile, fidgety, shift their postures toward others
What is synchrony?
people mirroring others' behaviors
A high/low context culture places more emphasis on nonverbal communication.
high context
Space issues in high contact cultures
people in cultures are more comfortable being touched or being in close proximity to others
Space issues in low contact cultures
prefer more personal space, have less eye contact, dont like being touched.
Is the USA a high contact or low contact culture?
low contact
________ move closer to women than to men
Both sexes
_____ move closer to others than do ____.
women, men
____ have less eye contact
Men
_____ use more facial expressions
women
___ use more gestures
men
____ initiate touch more often than ___.
men, women
_____ speak with less volume
women
In general do men/women tend to be more accurate in receiving and interpreting nonverbal messages?
women
___ typically have higher status.
men
Behaviors that signal like/dislike, attract is called _______.
Immediacy
Immediacy cues
touch, fwd lean, close personal space, eye contact
behaviors that communicate power, status, influence is called ________.
potency/power
potency/power cues
protected space, increased distance, relaxed posture
behaviors that communicate active interactions, attention, and interest is called ____-.
responsiveness
Responsiveness cues
eye contact, vocal cues, animiated facial expressions, body movement
_____% of what North American culture communicates is conveyed in nonverbal behavior
60-70
When nonverbals and verbals contradict, we trust _____ cues.
nonverbal
Emotions and relational messages are conveyed in ___________ cues.
nonverbal
Function of emblems
substitute for verbal communication
Are emblems culturally specific?
yes
Function of illustrators?
Used to support language by describing and clarifying
are illustrators culturally specific?
no
What are the intrinisic/cross-cultural displays?
Illustators, Affective Display, Adaptors, Regulators
Questions of fact
asks whether something happened or did not
Question of value
concerns attitudes, beliefs, and values about what is good or bad or right or wrong
Questions of policy
questions that help groups determine what course of action or policy change would enable them to solve a problem or reach a decision
a method of arriving at a general or bottom-line conclusion through the use of specific examples, facts, stats, and opinions
Inductive Reasoning
the process of going from a general statemetn or pinciple to a specific conclusion.
Deductive Reasoning
the process of relating two or more events and concluding that one event caused the other
causal reasoning
the inappropriate assumption that one event is the cause of another
causal fallacy
bandwagon fallacy is aka _________.
appeal to popular opinion
when someone tries to convince you that an idea is good simply beacuse everyone else thinks its a good idea.
bandwagon fallacy/appeal to popular opinion
when a person reaches a conclusion from too little evidence or evidence that doesn't exist
hasty generalization
attacking the person
attacking irrelevant personal characteristics about someone rather than examining the idea or proposal he or she is advancing.
mindlessness
we can mindlessly carry out our daily tasks
Compliance Rate: "May I use the copy machine because I'm late to class?"
94%
Compliance Rate: "May I use the Xerox machine?"
60%
Compliance Rate: "May I use the Xerox machine because I need to make copies?"
93%
social proof
if others do it, it must be correct
to fight social proof:
Appeal to Authority
Reasoning from example aKA __________________
inductive reasoning
2 Types of Inductive Reasoning
1) examining many instances then generate a conclusion
2) examining one instance and make some conclusion
Reasoning form Generalization & Axiom aka ____________
Deductive reasoning
A generalization is applied to a specific situation
Reasoning from Generalization & axiom or deductive reasoning
Reasoning from sign
based on "Symptoms" or signs
Reasoning from parallel case:
reasoning by analogy
Reasoning from causal relation
one instance leads to another
a claim is erroroneously based on the logic of nature
Naturalistic fallacy
a claim is erroneously based strictly on traditions
genetic fallcy
an argument is erroneously based on
1) incomplete knowledge
2) double negatives
appeal to ignorance
a claim is based only on the endorsement of an unqualified "expert"
Appeal to Authority
one associates a certain stimulus to an outcome
sequential fallacy
(tautological) an argument assumes that which it seeks to prove
Begging the Question
wording of argument is conveniently unclear
fallacy of ambiguity