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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Five critical features of communication:
1) between 2 or more people
2) is a process
3) is transactional
4) is symbolic
5) involves people with agency
what is agency
the ability to make choices
frame of reference:
a person's worldview
is perfect communication possible?
no
can we take back what we said?
no, communciation is irreversible
Component Model of Communication Competence Components
1. Motivation
2. Knowledge
3. Skill
Criteria for Assessing/Acheiving Competence
1. Adaptability (flexibility)
2. Conversational Involvement
3. Conversational Management
4) Empathy
5) Effectiveness
6) Appropriateness
What is conversational narcissism?
being overly concerned about yourself.
what's empathy?
feeling WITH someone because you've been there or can relate to them.
Empathy involves 2 processes:
1) cognitive understanding
2) feeling parallel emotions
what is a social script?
the rules that govern an interaction
What are the kinds of roles?
task roles, maintenance roles, individual roles
what are task roles?
roles that help the group achieve its task or objective.
what are maintenance roles?
roles that maintain the groups interpersonal climate.
what are individual roles?
roles that
1) emphasize the individual personality
2) thereby favor the needs of the individual over the group
Coordinator, orienter, info speaker, and recorder are ________ roles.
task
aggressor, blocker, dominator, joker, all are __________ roles.
individual
encourager, compromiser, expeditor, follower are all __________ roles.
maintenance
Is it possible for a member to perform all three kinds of roles?
yes
When is a task role most beneficial?
when more productivity is needed.
When is a maintenance roles most beneficial?
when interpersonal harmony is needed.
Types of tension
Primary, Secondary
What is primary tension?
uneasiness and getting acquainted, managing initial group uncertainty.
uneasiness and getting acquainted, managing initial group uncertainty is what kind of tension?
Primary
what is secondary tension?
a struggle for influence, development or roles and norms, explorations and approaches to group tasks.
a struggle for influence, development or roles and norms, explorations and approaches to group tasks is called ________.
secondary tension
what are the characteristics of a supportive group climate?
1. communcation that describes, rather than evaluates.
2. a problem orientation indiciating a mutual interest in solving problems.
3. spontaneous, openness and honesty not a preconceived strategy.
4. communcation that conveys empathy and concern.
To prevent a defensive climate, _______ face threats
avoid
What is conflict?
disagreement over instrumental, self-presentational, or relational goals
what are instrumental goals
involve favors or tasks
goals that involve favors or tasks are called _________ goals.
instrumental
what are self-presentational goals?
goals involving face concerns of competence and likability.
goals involving face concerns of competence and likeability are called ________ goals.
self-presentational
what are relational goals?
goals involving relationship issues.
Conflict Management styles are arrayed along two dimensions:
Cooperative and Assertive
______ ________

________

______ ________
accomodating collaborating
compromising
avoiding competing
what are external factors?
environmental factors
what are internal factors?
behavior linked to a persons personality, values, beliefs, etc
3 Distinctions of Causes (of Accountability)
1. Distinctivness: whether a behavior is distinctive in one situation vs. another
2. Consistency: whether a behavior is consistent over time.
3. Consensus: perception of similar others in similar siutations.
whether a behavior is distinctive in one situation vs. another is called _______.
distinctiveness
whether a behavior is consistent over time is called _____.
consistency
perception of similar others in similar situations is called
consensus
What are Attribution biases?
1. Fundamental Attribution Error: attribute others behavior to internal causes.
2. ACtor/Oberserver Difference:
an actor: we see the situation and not the person
as observers: we see the person not the situation
3. Self-serving bias: take credit for our successes and blame external factors for our failures
attribute others behaviors to internal causes is called
Fundamental Attribution error
seeing the person vs. situation called
Actor/Observer Difference
taking credit for our successes and blaming external factors on our failures is called
self serving bias
what is diffusion of responsibility?
responsibility for action is spread thinly throughout a group, no single person feels the obligation to act, so no one does.
what is pluralistic ignorance?
each person in a grouping decides that because nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong.
what is social loafing?
when group members hold back on their contributions assuming others will do the work
group think
group members might agree primarily to avoid conflict
what is individualism
our tendency to focus on individual accomplishment
Factors of Interpersonal attraction
1. similarity
2. complementarity
3. proximity/contact/interaction
4. physical attractiveness
factors of group attraction :
1. Group activities
2. Group goals
3. Group membership
what are norms?
rules or standards that determine what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group.
how do norms develop?
1. based on previous groups theyve been in
2. based on behaviors in early existence
norms developed based on prev. groups is called
structuration
Factors that affect conformity to norms
1. individual characteristics of group members
2. the clarity of the norm and certainty of punishment for breaking it
3. hte number of people who already conformed
4. the quality if interpersonal relationships that have developed in the group
5. the sense of group identification that members have developed.
to avoid social loafing:
1. make each member's contribution identifiable
2. ensure each person has a different task
3. include people who are collectivistic
to avoid group think:
1. assign a devils advocate
2. use discussion boards that allow for anonymity
3. engage in productive conflict.
People from collectivistic cultures view assertive people as _______
self centered
Individualists view collectivists as _____
weak.
Who is more likely to conform to group norms and more likely to value group decisions/
collectivists
what should you be aware of before judging someone
its impossible to predict with certainty that an individual or collectivistic orientation based on culture alone
___ status members talk more than __ status members.
high low
__ status members communicate more with other ___ status members than they do with ___ status members.
high high low
___ status members communciate more positive messages to __ status members than they do to ____ status members
low high low
__ status members abide by norms more than do ___ status members
high low
__ status members are less likely to complain about their jobs or responsibilities.
high
___ status members talk more to entire group
high
Misconceptions about conflict
1. conflict should be avoided.
2. all conflict occurs because people dont understand one another.
3. all conflict can be resolved.
what is worldview?
your fundamental outlook on reality and your place in the universe, purpose in life, etc